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For Year 8 Geography, studies of settlements.
Terms in this set (50)
A place where people live work and entertain themselves. Each of these has a different function and is a collection of different elements. Some can be subsistence, while others focus more on commercial enterprise.
The second smallest type of settlement on the settlement hierarchy. Perhaps only a few dozen houses. no shops, and probably not even a pub. Essentially a very small village.
The third smallest size of settlement. May have several hundred homes and several shops; doctor, post office, primary school. Usually contains fewer than 1000 people.
The fourth smallest type of settlement on the settlement hierarchy. Thousands of homes and a range of shops; primary and secondary schools; perhaps a cinema, library, hospital, railway station. Usually home to more than 2000 people.
The fourth largest type of settlement on the settlement hierarchy. Many thousands or even millions of homes a wider range of shops and services; perhaps a university, airport, museums.
The largest type of settlement on the settlement hierarchy. A large urban area where two or more cities have begun to join together. This forms as a result of expansion of neighbouring areas and urban sprawl. Brisbane, Logan and the Gold Coast are an example of this.
The second largest settlement type on the settlement hierarchy. A metropolitan area with a total population in excess of ten million people. Many of these are located in Asia due to their rapidly growing population. The fastest growth of this type of city is taking place in the developing world.
The third largest type of settlement on the settlement hierarchy. A large and densely populated urban area; in most cases with over 1 million inhabitants, but fewer than 10 million. Brisbane is an example of this type of city.
A zone of transition between the built-up area and the countryside, where there is often competition for land use. It is a zone of mixed land uses, from shopping malls and golf courses to farmland and motorways.
The unplanned, uncontrolled spreading of urban development into areas adjoining the edge of a city. This can cause many problems for urban planners and developers. New services such as power, roads, rail etc need to be supplied to these sprawling urban areas/ They also have a massive impact on the environment due to the excess pollution caused by car use.
A rural area surrounding a large city, also called the market area. The name of this comes from a German word meaning 'the land behind', meaning the land behind a coastal settlement. It is characterised by a less dense population and infrastructure. People within this area will generally rely on the nearby, larger settlement to service many of their needs and provide work and other resources.
Type of settlement pattern where buildings are scattered throughout an area.
Type of settlement pattern where buildings are located along a road, river or train line.
Type of settlement pattern where buildings radiate out from a central hub
The process whereby societies grow and become more urban. This is mainly due to the process of rural/urban drift which draws people into cities, thus making more of the world's population more urban. The world now has more than 50% of its population living in cities and this is due to the rapid increase of this process.
A measurement of the number of people per given unit of land. Usually, population density is measured by the amount of people per square km.
An area of high density living, where people lack access to sanitation, services, fresh water, properly structured houses and recognised property rights. Most of these can be found in the developing world and are found on the outskirts of major, populated cities. There are 5 key aspects to form this type of area. Lack of secure tenure, lack of durable housing, insufficient living area, lack of access to fresh water, lack of sanitation facilities.
A term for non-urban areas. Characterised by low density living, typical employment is agriculture.
Relating to a city or town. A term for non-rural areas. Characterised by higher density of living, diverse employment, extensive dwellings.
The minimum number of people needed for a service to be worthwhile. This changes as the settlement grows and becomes larger. Smaller settlements will not have large services such as hospitals, high schools, cinemas etc. Larger settlements will have these services because they have a higher population.
The smallest settlement type in Australia. Usually only has one or two families and some farm workers. No services of any kind, such as shops.
The pattern of where people live in a particular country or area. This is not evenly distributed. Cities have high population densities and remote places such as deserts usually have low population densities.
The amount of productive land needed on average by each person in a selected area for food, water, transport, housing and waste management.
Fly in, Fly out is a system in which workers fly to work in places such as remote mines and after a week or more fly back to their home elsewhere.
Sea change/tree change
A movement of people from major cities to live near the coast or rural area to achieve a change of lifestyle.
Migrants from rural areas are attracted to urban regions largely for economic reasons, such as a higher income and job opportunities or social reasons, such as an urban lifestyle or access to improved infrastructure and technologies.
Factors forcing people to migrate or move from rural areas to more urban areas as a result of economic factors such as farm work being less profitable or political reasons such as conflict and war or climatic reasons such as famine.
The movement of people from one place to another
An area where two or more mega cities become connected as increasing number of towns and ghettos develop between them.
The facilities, services and installations needed for a society to function, such as transportation and communication systems, water and power lines.
A sparsely populated region of mainly central Australia that contains around 3 million people. It is remote, but rich in resources.
The major coastal regions of Australia. Home to around 19 million people. Densely populated and home to the major urban areas of the country.
This means per person. It is a measurement used to divide statistics roughly by the number of people living in a country or area.
Arrival points for migrant workers trying to gain access to better lives in urban areas. These cities are large enough to provide a range of different jobs and are attractive to people moving from other regions.
A method of reducing urban sprawl by building high and medium density housing within the inner suburbs of a city.
Development projects that target an area that has undergone urban decay/decline. The area will be developed to have new housing, entertainment and commercial districts. This will attract new people to the area and lead to the area becoming more expensive.
The process where an area undergoes demographic change and more wealthy people begin to move in. This often happens after urban renewal and leads to rent and property prices rising. This can often lead to poorer people being pushed out of the area due to the rising prices.
The process of a previously functioning city, or part of a city, falling into despair. This often happens due to an area of the city facing job losses and people moving away. The most common areas to face this problem are the older areas of the city.
The process of living in a way that does not do permanent damage to the planet. This allows for future generations to enjoy the same standards of living.
A concept of urban planning that focuses on building village style residential and commercial areas inside a larger settlement. The idea is so create somewhat self-sufficient communities that will cut down on urban sprawl. People are provided with everything that they need to live within a small space and are able to walk everywhere.
The process of rural residents moving into urban areas. This is caused by a number of push and pull factors and is the major factor in the increasing urbanisation of the planet.
Land that has not yet been urbanised and developed. These sites are often open fields and sometimes used for farming. In Australia, they are often developed into housing estates.
Abandoned or underused industrial area which has the potential to be redeveloped. These are often old warehouses, factories, powerstations etc. An excellent example in Brisbane is the Gasworks development or the Brisbane Powerhouse.
A major transport route that runs through a city. These will often be large freeways that can carry a significant portion of a city's traffic. They will run North-South and East-West to allow for the entire city to be covered.
The central business district. This is an area of mainly commercial zoning found close to the middle of a large city. There will also be high-density residential and institutional zoning.
The concept of dividing a city up into specific areas. These areas are then given different uses based on the needs of the settlement. Examples of these areas include residential, industrial, recreational/green space and commercial.
A zone set aside for retail shops and businesses.
A zone set aside for private homes. This zone can be divided into low, medium and high density.
A zone set aside for heavy and light industry. These ones will always be found further away from residential zones.
A zone set aside for things such as schools, universities and hospitals.
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