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Excise Tax

Hamiltonian economic measure repealed by Jefferson and Gallatin


Action Jefferson took toward Republican "martyrs" convinced under the Federalist Sedition Law

Midnight Judge

Derogatory Republican term for Federalist judges appointed at the last minute by President Adams

Marbury v. Madison

Precedent-setting Supreme Court case in which Marshall declared part of the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional

Judicial Review

The principle established by Chief Justice Marshall in a famous case, that the Supreme Court can declare laws unconstitutional


Action voted by the House of Representatives against Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase


Branch of military service that Jefferson considered least threatening to liberty and most necessary to suppressing the Barbary states

Santo Domingo

Sugar-rich island where Toussaint L'Ouverture's slave rebellion disrupted Napoleon's dreams of a vast New World empire

Oregon Country

Territory beyond Louisiana, along the Columbia River, explored by Lewis and Clark


Price paid by the United States for the Louisiana Purchase

The Chesapeake

American ship fired on by British in 1807, nearly leading to war between the two countries

Embargo Act

Jefferson's policy of forbidding the shipment of any goods in or out of the United States

Macon's Bill No. 2

An 1810 law that restored American trade with Europe but promised a new boycott against either France or Britain if the other would lift its blockade

War Hawks

Militantly nationalistic western congressmen eager for hostilities with the Indians, Canadians, and British

Battle of Tippecanoe

Battle in 1811 where General Harrison defeated the Indian forces under Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa (The Prophet)

Mr. Madison's War

Derisive Federalist name for the War of 1812 that blamed in on the Republican president

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