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Strong believer in strict construction, weak government, and antimilitarism who was forced to modify some of his principles in office
Swiss-born treasury secretary who disliked national debt but kept most Hamiltonian economic measures in effect
Federalist Supreme Court justice whose brilliant legal established the principle of judicial review
Marbury v. Madison
Ruling based on a "midnight judge" case that established the right of the Supreme Court to declare laws unconstitutional
Federalist Supreme Court justice impeached by the House in 1804 but acquitted by the Senate
Pasha of Tripoli
North African leader who fought an undeclared war with the United States from 1801 to 1805
French ruler who acquired Louisiana from Spain only to sell it to the United States
American minister to paris who joined James Monroe in making a magnificent real estate deal
Gifted black revolutionary whose successful slave revolution indirectly led to Napoleon's sale of Louisiana
Young army officer who joined Jefferson's personal secretary in exploring the Louisiana Purchase and Oregon country
Former vice-president, killer of Alexander Hamilton, and plotter of mysterious secessionist schemes
Embargo Act of 1807
Restrictive trade policy that hurt Britain but hurt American shippers and farmers even more
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