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GOV final semester 1
Terms in this set (182)
Political socialization is defined as:
The process through which an individual acquires his or her particular orientation.
The cozy relationship between politicians and the press in the 20th century lasted until:
Vietnam and watergate.
Public Opinion is known as:
The expression of attitudes about government and policies.
Which of the following statements about equality applies most accurately to Americans?
Most americans believe that everyone has the right to get ahead- equality of opportunity.
A libertarian is a person who generally______ government involvement with the economy and _______ government initiatives concerning social welfare (like banning drugs or giving out welfare.)
Which of the following is the most consistently liberal group?
Which of the following is the most consistently conservative group.
When the New York times sought to publish the Pentagon Papers and the Federal Government sued to prevent publication, what did the supreme court rule?
It ruled that any prior restraint by the government was constitutional.
If you are a public figure and you are deframed by someone, you would have to prove the following:
That the person intentionally printed the information with actual malice.
News Coverage of Congress:
Focuses on the leadership in the Senate and House.
The media plays a key role in politics by:
Helping to set the issues that political leaders need to address.
A "Big Statist" is a person who generally _______ government involvement with the economy and _______ government initiatives concerning social welfare (like banning drugs or giving out welfare).
Which of the following is NOT a core value of the United States Political Culture.
The term "horse race journalism" refers to the tendency of the media to:
cover campaigns by emphasizing the relative standings of the candidates in the polls rather than the issues they discuss.
Which of the following statements about voting behavior in the United States is correct?
College graduates are more likely to vote than those who have at most a high school diploma.
When A child's parents both identify strongly with the same political party, the child will most likely:
identify with the parents' party.
Which of the following statements about voting patterns is best supported by the table?
Women were more likely than men to vote democrat.
Which of the following is a major result of media-centered politics?
A decrease in voter turnout.
One reason that identification with a party has declined in recent years is that:
Young voters have weaker party identification.
Which of the following statements about U.S. voter participation in presidential elections is correct?
It has declined since the latter part of the nineteenth century.
The general pattern of public opinion cleavages in this country has been:
Crosscutting, based on many variables.
Which of the following reflects how the news media covers campaigns?
The media's coverage is characterized by candidates' sound bites and photo ops.
Which of the following statements describes voting trends in recent presidential elections?
More people are enrolling as independents.
Which of the following statements is a major reason for the increased use of public opinion polls by the media?
Elected officials pay attention to poll results.
The media play what kind of role related to public policy?
It has the major function of linking the electorate to the formal institution of government.
Liberal activists would probably support which of the following rulings made by the supreme court:
A Free speech case where a provision of a congressional act restricting access to obscene sites on the internet was declared unconstitutional.
Citizens who believe they can influence political events have a higher sense of civic:
In comparison to other nations,
Americans have more confidence in both public and private institutions.
All of the following are apart of the American Political Culture except:
American's do not support programs to help those truly in need.
A conservative would support which of the following measures?
1 and 4; Less government regulation of the economy and the death penalty.
A liberal would support which of the following measures?
2 and 3; affirmative action programs for underrepresented groups and increased spending on social programs, such as welfare.
A Libertarian would support which of the following measures?
1,2, and 3; Less government regulation of the economy, affirmative actions programs for underrepresented groups and increased spending on social programs, such as welfare.
A "Big statist" would support which of the following measures?
2,3, and 4; affirmative actions programs for underrepresented groups, increased spending on social programs such as welfare and the death penalty.
All of the following are true of political elites except:
They tend to have moderate political beliefs.
The government can use all of the following tools to encourage positive stories and constrain negative stories written by journalist except:
Revoking the licenses of stations that give unfavorable coverage.
In Near v. Minnesota (1931), the supreme court ruled:
that a newspaper had the freedom to publish without "prior restraint" or censorship by the government.
In New York Times v. Sullivan (1964) the Supreme Court ruled:
The first amendment protected a newspaper from being sued for libel in state court for making false defamatory statements about the official conduct of a public official, because the statements were not made with knowing or reckless regard for the truth.
In Miami Herald v. Tornillo (1974), the Supreme court ruled:
against (overturning) a Florida state law requiring newspapers to allow equal access to political candidates in the case of a political editorial or endorsement content.
Which of the following groups of issue does the text refer to the area of conflict in the culture war?
Drug use, school prayer and abortion.
The term "party machine" usually refers to a:
Local party organization that is tightly disciplined and well-staffed and relies on patronage to create party loyalty.
Which of the following demographic groups has voted most consistently for the Democratic party in national elections over the last three decades?
Which of the following best describes gerrymandering?
The party in control of the state legislature draws district boundaries in such a way as to favor its own candidates in subsequent elections.
The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act on 2002 (McCain-FeinGold) did which of the following?
It banned candidates from running negative advertisements.
The process known as front-loading refers to:
The tendency of states to choose an early date on the primary calendar.
Which of the following is a type of primary election that requires registration as a party affiliate to vote?
An election in which there is a significant shift in the bases of electoral support from one political party to another is called:
Which of the following describes the result in a winner-take-all, single member district plurality system?
The candidate who receives the most votes in an election wins.
A major difference between political parties and interest groups is that:
Political parties seek to gain control of government, while interest groups seek to influence public policy.
When none of the presidential candidates receives a majority of the votes in the electoral college, the winner is chosen by the:
House of Representatives only.
The term "split-ticket voting" is most accurately described as:
Voting for candidates of different parties on the same ballot.
When contributing to congressional campaigns, political action committees (PAC) are most likely to contribute to:
incumbents of both major parties.
Which of the following is most frequently reported in the media during a presidential election?
Results from public opinion polls that indicate which candidates are most likely to win.
Party identification in the United States is most successfully transmitted by which of the following?
Which of the following is NOT an explanation for low voter turnout?
Laws protecting minority voting rights.
Which of the following individuals would be most likely to vote in a Republican primary?
A 45-year old white businessman from South Caroline who attends Church weekly.
Which of the following is true of Political Action Committee (PAC)?
They are making campaign contributions in opes of gaining access to legislatures.
In response to the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (McCain-FeinGold Act), the United States Supreme Court, is Citizens United v. Federal Election Commissions (2010), ruled that
Independent Campaign expenditures by corporations and unions are protected by the First Amendment.
One of the best strategies that interest groups can use to achieve their goals is
Lobbying members of Congress to make small changes to existing policies.
Since the 1960's, support for the Democratic Party has declined the most among which of the following groups.
Which of the following is LEAST characteristics of the history of political parties in the United States during the twentieth century?
The splitting of two major parties into a multiparty system.
Which of the following is a result of the electoral college system?
Candidates focus on the states with the largest populations.
Which of the following statements best describes the organizations of the two major political parties in the United States?
Separate and largely independent party organizations exist at national, state and local levels.
Which of the following took place after presidential candidates Truman in 1948, Nixon in 1968, and Clinton in 1992 won only pluralities of the popular vote?
The winning candidate took office after receiving less than 50% of the popular votes cast.
Lobbyist try to influence legislators mainly though:
Providing legislators with information on technical issues.
Which of the following is a provision of federal election laws.
In areas with significant populations of linguistic minorities, voting materials must be made available in the preferred language of the population.
Political action Committees (PACs) representing which of the following groups have increased in number most substantially since the mid-1970's?
The concept of "critical elections" is most closely associated with:
The electoral college process.
Which of the following best describes pork barrel politics?
Members of congress negotiate bills so that individual districts get money for projects that do not benefit the nation as a whole.
Which of the following is true of both members of the House of Representatives and senators?
They must be a citizen of the United States.
The committee that resolves differences between House and Senate versions of a bill is called
Which of the following is true of the seniority system of congress in relation to committee leadership and committee staffing?
The chairs of congressional committees tend to be senior members of the body's majority party.
Jim Crow laws, still in place in the early 1960's in the South, were outlawed by:
the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
The senate must confirm all of the following presidential appointments except:
White House Staff.
Congressional legislative powers include all of the following except:
Members of congress who have adopted the delegate role of representation normally cast their votes based on which of the following"
The preferences of the majority of their constituents.
Which of the following committees plays a major role in the House in shaping tax policy?
Ways and Means.
The passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 is a significant political event because it:
was instrumental in increasing the number of African American and other minority voters.
Which of the following is a correct statement about the federal government's role in interstate commerce?
The federal government's role has been greatly expanded through the interpretation of the interstate commerce clause.
Which of the following constitutional provisions broadened the power of congress?
The Necessary and Proper Clause.
Which of the following actions by a congressional representative is an example of "pork barreling"
Directing federal funds into the representative's district through legislation.
Which of the following is an example of checks and balances in action in the United States government:
The president vetoes a bill passed by Congress.
Congressional oversight refers to the power of congress to:
Override presidential vetoes.
Most of the work of legislating in congress takes place in:
Which of the following is a primary function of the Senate Judiciary Committee?
Conducting hearings on judicial appointments made by the president.
The House Rules Committee is an important part of the legislative process because it:
Determines the terms and conditions of debate when a bill goes to the floor.
Congressional district boundaries are usually redrawn every ten years by the:
The franking privilege refers to the:
right of members of congress to send mail to their constituents at the governments expense.
Which of the following is generally true of the gerrymandering of congressional districts:
It creates districts that favor one political party over another.
A major difference between the House of Representatives and the Senate is that:
There is unlimited debate in the Senate but not in the house.
To which of the following congressional committees would a proposal to reform the national income-tax system initially be sent?
House Ways and Means Committee.
Whips have which of the following functions?
They are responsible for keeping party members in line when a vote occurs.
Which of the following is a major cause of the inability of congress to pass legislation?
Divided party control of congress.
Standing house committees such as the Ways and Means Committee are important because they:
Mark up bills before they go to the entire house for debate.
The constitution provides that one-third of the Senate's membership is up for election every two years so that:
The entire house and entire senate are not elected the same year.
Which of the following was a major reason the Supreme Court ruled that state-approved term limits for congress were unconstitutional?
The age, residency, and citizenship requirements in the constitution could be altered only by a constitutional amendment.
Which of the following statements best describes congressional incumbency.
Incumbent are usually able to win reelection.
The guiding principle that governs legislative apportionment is:
One Man, One vote.
Which of the following functions of senators and representatives would be the most important to their constituents?
Recommending a high school student to one of their military academies.
Major differences between procedures in the House of Representatives and the Senate would include:
1,2, and 3; In the house, time debate is limited while in the senate it is usually unlimited; in the house, the rules committee is very powerful, while in the senate it is relatively weak; and in the house, debate must be germane, while in the senate it need not be.
All of the following are examples of congressional oversight committees EXCEPT:
The house judiciary committee's hearing on the impeachment of President Clinton.
All of the following statements about modern congressional staffs are true EXCEPT:
Only a few members of congress have full-time staff working in their home states and districts.
A discharge petition is used in the House of Representatives to:
Force a bill out of a committee which has held it for 30 days without reporting it out.
The enumerated powers of congress and the national government are those:
Specifically spelled out in the constitution.
Since the 1930's, the national government has controlled its grants to the states through detailed rules, regulations, and restrictions because:
The national government does not trust the states to use the money for the purpose for which it is given.
The decision of the supreme court upheld the principle that:
Congress has the power to make laws to carry out its constitutional duties.
Which of the following resulted from this supreme court decision?
The power of the national government was strengthened.
"Dual Federalism" refers to:
The constitution's formal recognition of two layers of government- The state and federal governments as two and distinct spheres of influence.`
Which of the following best illustrates a use of the elastic cause?
Congress passes legislation establishing a national speed limit.
The Supreme Court case of Printz v. United States:
voided the congressional mandate in the brandy bill requiring sheriffs to conduct background checks on prospective gun purchasers.
Fiscal Federalism is:
The pattern of spending, taxing and providing grants in the federal system.
The supreme court case of Gibbons v. Ogden:
Defined commerce as virtually every form of commercial activity.
According to the writings of the federalist papers, which of the following reflects a major reason for the support of a federal system?
Local governments will maintain authority and will be able to care for their citizens.
Which general area of policy is generally left up to the states?
Health and Welfare.
The constitution's provisions that congress has the right to "make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution its power is often referred to as the:
Federal regulation of state governments is usually accomplished through:
Attaching conditions to grants it gives them.
Which of the following is viewed as an advantage of the many governments that characterize American Federalism.
Having many governments enables the country to experiment with new policies on a small scale.
The intended goal of the Republican Revolution on federalism was:
The acceleration of the ongoing shift of power back to the states.
Which aspect of fiscal federalism did congress challenge with legislation after the Republican Revolution?
One recent controversial application of the "full faith and credit" provision of the Constitution is for:
Same Sex marriages.
The Framers created the federal system in order to:
Prevent Tyranny by dividing the powers of government.
Federal policies to regulate food and drugs, build interstate highways, protect consumers, try to clean up dirty air and water, and do many other things are all justified as ______________ of congress.
The national drinking age act, race to the top initiative and the interstate highway system are all examples of:
Which of the following reflects the devolution of federal power?
The increase of block grants given to the states.
The Supreme Court in the case of US v. Lopez (1995) ruled:
That congress had exceeded its powers when it passed the gun free zone act.
The Founding Fathers devised a federal system for all of the following reasons except:
Federal systems were common througout the world and were proven to be effective.
The Americans with Disability Act (ADA) requires states and local governments to provide equal access for the disabled. This is an example of a(n):
The state plays a key role in all of the following EXCEPT:
Managing the Economy.
The founders did not include in the U.S. constitution an explicit statement of state powers but added it later in:
The tenth amendment.
An important outcome of Marshall's ruling in McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) was to:
Confirm the supremacy of the federal government in the exercise of the constitutional powers granted to congress.
The doctrine of nullification refers to:
The claimed authority of the states to declare federal law void violating the U.S. constitution.
Under the policy powers, states can enact and enforce all of the following except:
The regulation of interstate commerce.
In the United States, programs such as the interstate highway system and services to the unemployed are most accurately considered:
state functions, although federal government seeks to regulate them.
Which statement regarding states is incorrect?
Their existence is not guaranteed in the constitution.
Which of the following was NOT one of the reasons federal grants were attractive to state officials?
Passage of the 15th amendment.
Many believe that blog grants have enjoyed only marginal success, in part, because:
The federal government steadily increased the numbers of strings attached to such grants.
To qualify for certain federal funds, states must allow drivers to make legal right hand turns after stopping at a red light. This requirement by the federal government is known as a:
Condition of Aid.
The difference between a mandate and a condition of aid is that:
With a mandate, it makes no difference who is paying the cost of a program.
Judges have ordered Massachusetts to charge the way it hires firefighters, even though the state does not receive aid from federal government for fire fighting. Such an order is referred to as a:
The republican effort to pass on to the states many federal functions is known as:
Why does environmental regulations cause frictions between the state and federal governments?
Because environmental policy creates an underfunded or unfunded mandate.
What is the main reason for the shift from dual to cooperative federalism?
The increase in federal grants-in-aid to the states.
Which of the following is the best example of fiscal federalism?
Categorical, project and block grants.
The tenth amendment to the constitution has been interpreted by the Supreme Court to:
Reserve powers to the states.
Which of the following is once of the central concerns of the First Amendment?
The right of citizens to petition the government for redress of grievances.
Most amendments to the U.S. constitution have been ratified by the vote of:
3/4 state legislature.
Which of the following is true under the system of checks and balances?
The senate must ratify treaties negotiated by the president before they become a law.
Which of the following was the most important effect of replace the Articles of confederation with the Constitution of 1787?
The creation of a strong national government.
The federalists were concerned that religious groups might:
Degenerate into factions.
Compared with Federalists, Anti-Federalists tended to favor a:
Weak, decentralized government as a protection of liberty.
Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the motives behind the support that different framers gave to the U.S. Constitution?
Most framers acted out a mixture of motives, with economic interests playing only a modest role.
The issue of importation of slaves was addressed by the constitutional convention in what way?
It allowed slavery where approved by the citizens of a state.
The U.S. constitution failed to outlaw slavery because:
Southern support was essential to the adoption of the document.
Which of the following is not addressed in the Bill of Rights?
Trial by jury.
The first amendment addressed the issue of:
Freedom of speech.
The debates between Federalist and Anti-Federalists were primarily about which of the following issues?
The scope of power of the central government.
The Supreme Court's power of judicial review permits the Court to overrule all of the following EXCEP:
The Bill of Rights.
Which of the following United States Supreme Court cases established the principle of judicial review?
Marbury v. Madison.
John Locke's Second Treatise of Civil Government advocates:
When the articles of Confederation were adopted, the nation's major was dominated by:
Which of the following documents represents the first adopted Constitution for the United States?
Articles of Confederation.
Which of the following statements in the federalist papers referred to "the most common and durable source of faction?:
The unequal distribution of a property.
Madison believed that in order to prevent a "Tyranny of the majority" the new government should include all of the following EXCEPT:
Limiting the president's term of office.
Which of the following documents created a compromise that led to the formation of a bicameral legislature?
The Federalists believed that a nation dominated by factions would lead to:
A tyranny of the majority.
The Constitution's writers carefully drafter a document that would create:
The ability to adapt to changing times.
Which of the following governmental bodies is most directly responsible to the electorate.
The House of Representatives.
The question of the constitutionality of a term limit for legislators imposed by a state constitution is based on which of the following arguments?
The fact that the Constitution sets the qualifications for congressmen.
The practice of judicial review was first established by which of the following actions?
The supreme court can declare a congressional act unconstitutional.
Which of the following resulted after the Supreme Court made a ruling in Baker v. Carr?
The principle of "One man, one vote" was established.
All of the following are considered enumerated powers of congress EXCEPT:
Setting up the first national bank of the United States.
The implied power clause in the Constitution has been described as the ability of congress to take which of the following actions?
Pass an assault weapons ban.
In addition to the state constitutional powers of the president, which of the following roles does he take on?
Acting as head of his political party.
Which of the following is the only constitutional responsibility of the Vice-President?
Presiding over the Senate.
Which of the following represents a major reason why the Electoral college was created?
It would enable a select group of electorates to case the final vote for president and vice president.
The following represents examples of limited government EXCEPT:
The reserved power clause of the Tenth amendment.
All of the following represents examples of the use of checks and balances EXCEPT:
Congress passing the crime bill after a conference committee made charges.
Which of the following actions increase the power of the president?
A greater reliance on the federal government to solve problems.
Which of the following principles of government was articulated in the Federalist papers.
Checks and Balances.
The provision of the fifth amendment have all of the following components EXCEPT
The right of eminent domain.
The main criticism leveled against the articles of confederation was so that it:
Failed to give the national government the authority to lay and collect taxes.
The original intent of the fourteenth amendment to the constitution as interpreted by the supreme court was to:
Provide equal protection under the law for freed slaves.
All of the following powers are granted to congress by the constitution EXCEPT:
Creating inferior courts.
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