67 terms

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absolutism
belief that a state should be ruled by one person who has total power
Adam Smith
economist who wrote "Wealth of Nations" and promoted economic liberalism
balance of power
cooperation between European states to assure no single state becomes too powerful
boyars
Russian nobles
cahiers
notebooks written on the eve of the French Revolution that presented grievances and proposals for reform
Catherine the Great
ruler of Russia who continued westernization, ended torture, offered limited religious toleration, and supported education
Charles I
English monarch who fought Parliament during English Civil War and was executed for treason
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
law requiring clergy to support French National Assembly, making church officials elected, and confiscating Catholic lands (1790)
Committee of Public Safety
branch of National Convention that worked to eliminate all inside and outside threats to French Revolution
Concert of Europe
group of Great Powers trying to maintain balance of power and prevent revolution
Concordat of 1801
Napoleon promises church that a majority of Frenchmen will be Catholic
Confederation of the Rhine
group of German states controlled by Napoleon's empire
Congress of Vienna
General peace settlement after defeat of Napoleon that involved Russia, Austria, Prussia, Britain, and France
conservatism
ideology of preserving tradition, maintaining balance of power, opposing civil liberties, and avoiding revolution
constitutionalism
system of government based on a written document of basic principles
cottage system
production of goods within people's homes using hand tools
Declaration of Rights of Man
French constitution written by National Assembly
enclosure
transition from open-field system to fenced-in fields, farming more effectively
English Bill of Rights
Set of English laws protecting individual rights and establishing relationship between king and Parliament
English Civil War
Conflict between Charles I and Parliament over government power
Estates General
French legislature called in 1788 formed by three separate social groups
Frederick the Great
ruler of Prussia who wrote new code of law, welcomed religious minorities, and took Silesia
Frederick William I
Prussian king responsible for Prussian absolutism and continuing militarization
Frederick William the Great Elector
Austrian ruler who unified separate states and started process of militarization
Girondists
moderate republicans who didn't want the execution of the king
Great Famine
event in Ireland that led to a 25% drop in population
guild
trade based-association with a monopoly over its own trade, special privileges for members, and assurance of high-quality goods
Jacobins
very radical republicans who wanted the execution of the king
James I
English monarch who believed in divine right to rule and absolute power; battled with both Parliament and Puritans
James II
English monarch who violated Test Act and was replaced by Glorious Revolution
John Locke
English philosopher who believed in protecting natural rights
junkers
Prussian nobles
Joseph II
ruler of Austria who abolished serfdom and promoted religious toleration, even though his reforms didn't last
Legislative Assembly
French legislature formed in 1791 that declared war on Austria and Prussia when they supported the monarchy
liberalism
ideology of civil rights, liberty, and representative government
Louis XIV
French monarch responsible for absolutism and revocation of the Edict of Nantes
Louis XVI
weak monarch of France who gives in to efforts for a constitutional monarchy and is executed during the Reign of Terror
Montesquieu
Enlightenment figure who promoted separation of powers
Napoleon
emperor of France from 1804 to 1814 who used domestic policy to maintain popularity and order
Napoleonic Code
French civil code reasserting "Declaration of Rights of Man" and explaining civil rights, property, etc.
National Assembly
French legislature formed in 1789 that wrote Declaration of the Rights of Man
National Convention
Legislature formed in 1792 during the radical revolution that declares France a republic
nationalism
ideology of ethnic groups sharing common identity and desire for politically independent state
Oliver Cromwell
English military dictator and lord protector who dismissed Parliament
open-field system
division of large fields into long, narrow strips that are not communal
Peace of Utrecht
Treaty ending War of Spanish Succession, stating that France and Spanish monarchies cannot join, and giving Austria control of former Spanish Netherlands
Peter the Great
Russian tsar of Romanov Dynasty responsible for westernization and militarization
Petition of Right
English constitutional document giving Parliament power to approve and reject laws, especially taxes
putting-out system
production of goods where merchants loan materials to cottage workers who return the finished product
Reign of Terror
period where National Convention attempted to carry out the "war against tyranny" through mass execution
Robespierre
Jacobin leader of Committee of Public Safety who was executed to put an end to the Reign of Terror
Rousseau
Enlightenment figure who promoted emotion over rationalism, also wrote "The Social Contract" and believed in general will
salons
locations where rich women hosted discussions about literature, science, and philosophy
Sans-culottes
radical group of laboring poor who helped overthrow Louis XVI and took over Paris' municipal government
Seven Years' War
first "global" war that involved much of Europe, including Britain, France, Spain, and Prussia
Storming of Bastille
commoners seize arms and attack a royal prison, leading Louis XVI to withdraw troops from Paris (1789)
Tennis Court Oath
Third Estate decides to write a new constitution and forms National Assembly
Thermidorian Reaction
reaction to Reign of Terror that led to Robespierre's execution, abolition of economic controls, and reconciliation with Catholic Church
Thomas Hobbes
English philosopher who believed in absolutism and preserving order at all costs
Treaty of Paris
agreement that ended the Seven Years' War: Britain take France's territory in North America/India and Prussia maintains control of Silesia
Voltaire
Enlightenment figure who promoted religious tolerance and the separation of church from state
Women's March on Versailles
Revolt where women invaded the National Assembly and the royal apartments (1789)
politique
type of leader who puts order ahead of personal beliefs
Pragmatic Sanction
treaty violated when Frederick the Great takes Silesia from Maria Theresa
taille
tax on land
War of Austrian Succession
war started by the violation of the Pragmatic Sanction
intendant system
system used by French monarchy to limit power of the nobles