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Comm Theory new chapters
Terms in this set (46)
What was "mass society thinking"?
the idea that average people are the victim of the powerful forces of mass media
How did "limited effects" theories differ from mass society thinking with respect to individual differences and social categories?
view media influence as limited by other aspects of individual audience members' personal and social lives
How did these two earlier approaches to the media view the audience?
not smart or credible
What does UGT argue?
that people actively seek out specific media and specific content to generate specific gratifications
What was Schramm's "fraction of selection"?
idea of how media choices are made: the expectation of reward divided by the effort required
What did Herzog learn about gratification gained from radio soap operas?
that some people watched for the drama because of the emotional release in listening to other people's problems, some for wishful thinking, and some because they felt the could learn how to handle situations in their own lives through what they saw
What is being studied in the most recent stage of UGT?
motives for listening to Christian radio, watching reality television, and reacting to the loss of a parasocial relationship due to the cancelation of a TV series
What are the assumptions of UGT? Know what cognitive, affective, personal integrative, and social integrative needs were met using media (assumption 1)
The audience is active and its media use is goal oriented
The initiative in linking need gratification to a specific medium choice rests with the audience member
The media compete with other sources for need satisfaction
People have enough self-awareness of their media use, interests, and motives to be able to provide researchers with an accurate picture of that use
Value judgments of media content can only be assessed by the audience
What kinds of audience activity is associated with media consumption?
utility (using the media to accomplish specific goals)
Intentionality (when people's prior motivations determine their consumption of media content)
Selectivity (selecting media that reflects their interest)
Imperviousness to influence (constructing their own meaning form the content)
What is the difference between activity and activeness in UGT?
activity refers to what the media user does and activeness refers to how much freedom the audience really has in the face of mass media
What new media has been studied using UGT?
e-mails and websites
How was UGT evaluated on utility and heurism?
weak in utility
strong in heurism
How does the management of conflict differ between cultures? Compare the US to some other cultures. (solution v. relationship)
U.S. manages in solution oriented manner
What was Goffmann's definition of face, to what context did he apply this concept and how did Ting-Toomey extend the concept to another context?
the image of the self that people display in their conversations with others, something that is maintained, lost, or strengthen
Goffmann applied to social groups
T-T says face is a universal concern
What are the two primary ways in which we might interpret face?
face concern (interest in maintaining one's face or the face of others)
Face need (desire to be associated or dissociated with others)
What is the role of Politeness Theory in FNT?
politeness is concerned with appropriateness of behavior and procedures as the relate to establishing and maintaining harmony in relationships
What are the universal face needs?
positive face (desire to be liked and admired by others
negative face (desire to autonomous and free from others)
What is "facework" and what counts as facework?
actions used to deal with face needs/wants of self and others.
verbal and nonverbal actions
What are the differences among tact, solidarity, and approbation facework?
tact facework (extent to which a person respects another's autonomy)
solidarity facework (accepting another as a member of an in-group)
approbation facework (focusing less on the negative aspects and more on the positive aspects of another)
What are the three assumptions of FNT?
Self identity is important in interpersonal interactions, with individuals negotiating their identities differently across cultures.
The management of conflict is mediated by face and culture.
Certain acts threaten one's projected self-image
What are the differences between individualistic and collectivistic cultures?
Individualism - a culture value that places emphasis on the individual over the group
Collectivism - places emphasis on the group
How do individualistic and collectivist cultures manage face differently?
Individualist - concerned with controlling one's autonomy and boundaries for behavior.
Collectivist - concerned with the face of the group as a whole
What are the five primary conflict management strategies?
Avoiding (staying away)
Obliging (satisfying the needs of others)
Compromising (middle ground)
Dominating (using authority to make decisions)
Integrating (collaborating with other to find a solution)
How was FNT evaluated in terms of heurism?
Who is credited with developing CAT and what does it try to explain?
When speakers interact, they modify their speech, their vocal patterns, and their gestures to accommodate others
Why do people try to accommodate others in conversation?
evoke listener's approval
achieve communication efficiency
assert a dominant position
maintain a positive social identity
How is accommodation defined?
adjusting, modifying, or regulating behavior in response to others
What theory of social psychology does CAT draw on?
Social Identity Theory
What are the assumptions of CAT and what does each mean?
Speech and behavioral similarities and dissimilarities exist in all conversations
the manner in which we perceive the speech and behaviors of another will determine how we evaluate a conversation.
Language and behaviors impart information about social status and group belonging
Accommodation varies in its degree of appropriateness, and norms guide the accommodation process
What are the three primary ways we adapt to the communication and behavior of others?
convergence (strategy used to adapt to another's behavior)
divergence (strategy used to accentuate the verbal and nonverbal differences between communicators)
over-accommodation (attempt to overdo efforts in regulating, modifying, or responding to others.)
How was CAT evaluated in terms of heurism?
What is the focus of MTG?
the power to name experiences and explains that women trying to use man-made language to describe their experiences is like English speakers learning to converse in spanish
How is the language of a particular culture limited in its ability to serve all members of that culture equally?
they have to go through a translation process, scanning vocabulary for the best word to express themselves making them hesitant and inarticulate resulting in losing their voice
Are all women muted, and do all men have voice?
In what way is MTG a critical theory?
it points out problems with the status quo and suggests ways to remediate the problems
What observations of Edwin and Shirley Ardener led to the development of MGT?
social anthropologists studied women's experiences by talking almost exclusively to men
women's mutedness is the counterpart to men's deafness. (women do speak but it falls on deaf ears)
What constitutes muted groups? How do sex and gender differ?
any non-dominant group
sex is a biological category divided into male and female and gender is a social category consisting of the learned behaviors that constitute masculinity and femininity for a given culture
What are the assumptions of muted group theory? Be sure you know what each means
Women perceive the world differently than men because of different experiences and activities rooted in the division of labor
Because of their political dominance, men's system of perception is dominant, impending the free expression of women's alternative models of the world
In order to participate in society, women must transform their own models in terms of the received male system of expression.
What are the four types of behavior that function to silence? Be able to recognize examples of each
What are the strategies of resistance that your text suggests?
naming the strategies of silencing
reclaim, elevate, and celebrate women's discourse
creating new words for uniquely gendered experiences
using new media
Are standpoints subjective or objective?
What are our experiences, knowledge, and communication shaped by?
the social groups to which they belong
What is the major influence that informs our view of social life?
the positions one occupies within a society.
No one view
What are the assumptions of standpoint theory about the nature of social life and about knowledge and knowledge gathering?
-Material life (or class position) structures and limits understandings of social relations
-When material life is structured in two opposing ways for two different groups, the understanding of each with be the inversion of the other. When there is a dominant and a subordinate group, the understanding of the dominant group will be both partial and harmful.
-The vision of the ruling group structures the material relations in which all groups are forced to participate.
- The vision available to an oppressed group represents struggle and an achievement
-The potential understanding of the oppressed (the standpoint) makes visible the inhumanity of the existing relations among groups and moves us toward a better and more just world.
What is situated knowledge?
what anyone knows is grounded in context and circumstance
What are we referring to when we discuss the sexual division of labor?
allocation of work on the basis of sex
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