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Psych Exam 3
Terms in this set (62)
Stressors fall into three categories:
catastrophes, significant life changes, daily hassles
Both _______ & ______ life events are considered to be stressors
Like emotion, _____ or the way we mentally label a stressor can influence the impact it has on our mental and physical well-being
Describe the human and animal studies associated with stress and illness
-Monkeys with 1 constant roommate vs changing, constant monkeys had a stronger immune system
- Inject people with a cold virus before or after finals people who got it before finals were more likely to get it
Define and give examples of problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies.
- Problem-focused: addressing the stressor itself, (ex: quitting your job because its toxic)
- Emotion-focused: addressing your feelings caused by the stressor, (ex: crying all the time at work to feel better about hating it)
What personality factors are associated with fewer negative consequences of stressors and healthier outcomes?
The ________ ______ ______ _______ phenomenon explains why we are more likely to help people when we are having a good day.
feel good do good
When does money impact happiness?
- can buy food & control which is like happiness.
- has no correlation, except for people under the poverty line, they're positively impacted by money
When you believe you can change a situation, you use a ________-_____ coping strategy as opposed to a __________-________ coping strategy
Describe experiments demonstrating the benefits of control & the tyranny of choice
- Old people who got to pick when their visiting hours occurred were significantly happier
- Giving prisoners the TV remote
- Sometimes we have too many options (like candy bars) and ends up stressing people out
- Giving someone freedom to decorate their work space
Free will is associated with_______ locus of control, determinism associated with _________ locus of control
List evidence-based strategies for a happier life
1.Money does not equal happiness
2. take time for yourself
3. act happy
4. control your time
5. seek work & leisure that engage your skills
8. prioritize relationships
9. count your blessings
10. Focus beyond yourself
11. nurture your spirit
Social psychology studies the _______ of the situation.
The fundamental attribution error is our tendency to describe others behaviors as a function of their ________ instead of the _______
Solomon Asch line study w/the base line and then a group had to pick which of 3 was the closest in length to the base, one person said the wrong line on purpose and the experimentee agrees 33% of the time even though they know it's the wrong answer.
Zimbardo Stanford-prison w/students acting as prison guards who mentally & physically abused those who were acting as inmates. Many students had to leave because of mental breakdowns. Zimbardo only stopped the study bc his girlfriend was going to leave him after seeing how inhumane and harmful it was and how proud he was of it.
Stanley-Milgram study w/electric shock 66% of people went to lethal shocking voltage because someone in authority told them to.
Describe the foot in the door phenomenon and how it is related to Milgram's study on obedience to authority.
Once you can get someone to do something small (like 15 volts) it becomes much easier to convince them to do a much larger task w greater risk (like the 300+ volts)
According to the ______ ______ _______, when our actions and attitudes are misaligned we are more likely to change our attitudes than our actions.
cognitive dissonance theory
When I yawn, you yawn is an example of _______, aka the ________ effect.
automatic mimicry, chameleon
Prejudice is an ________: Discrimination is an ______
A conscious attitude, such as not supporting interracial marriage is a form of _______ bias;
a non-conscious association between valence (good/bad) and members of a particular group is an ________ bias
Identify the studies revealing implicit prejudice
- Seeing a black face, priming w/ neutral object, people thought it was a weapon
- Seeing the areas of one's brain/muscles in the face reaction to a white face or a black face, shows fear for black faces
- Shoot/don't shoot game, if they have a weapon, shoot, if they don't, don't. black people got shot way more often than white.
The idea that familiarity breeds liking; such with the image of ourselves in the mirror is known as the ______ ________ ______
mere exposure effect
The decreased likelihood to help and individual in need as the number of potential helpers increases is known as the ______ ______
3 theories about the norms of helping.
- Not in a rush
- In a good mood
- See someone else being helpful too
Personality is an individual's characteristic pattern of _____, _____, & _____
thinking, feeling, and acting.
The 4 theoretical approaches to personality are:
Trait Theory, Psychodynamic, Social Cognitive perspective, and humanistic
Trait theories don't explain differences, they ______ them
The "Big 5" Personality traits
Openness, Conscientiousness, Extroversion, Agreeableness, & Neuroticism
The ______-________ controversy considers the debate between personality psychology and social psychology in explaining human behavior
A social-cognitive perspective looks at the interaction between one's _____ and their ________ ________
traits, social context
_________ _________ describes how a person's traits influence the situation in at least 3 key ways.
Self-esteem is our feelings of______-_______
_____-_____ bias is our sense of competence or ability to accomplish a task
A psychological disorder is defined as a _______ ______ ______ in an individual's cognition, emotion, regulation, or behavior.
clinically significant disturbance
Two key factors to determine 'clinically significant' are if the symptoms _________ an
individual's daily life or if they cause harm or ________ for the individual or others.
According to the medical model psychological disorders have ______ _______ that can be ______, ______ and in most cases, cured.
biological factors, diagnosed, treated
What are the goals of disorder classification?
- Describe symptoms
- Predict the future course
- Suggest appropriate treatment
- Prompt research for causes
How can labels influence perceptions of individuals suffering from a mental illness?
Cause us to stereotype people (ex: study where people were told there was either a doctor & cancer patient or a clinician & a mentally ill person. People reported that the mentally ill person was acting abnormal)
It is estimated that 1 in __ American's suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder.
The _____ ______ is the tendency to believe we are experiencing the symptoms of a disease or illness we are studying.
Generalized Anxiety Disorders:
continually tense for no given reason
sudden and intense feelings of dread, fearing an attack sometimes causes an attack because they are so horrific
specific and irrational fear of an object, action, or situation
Difference between major depressive disorder and persistent depressive disorder
- Major = 5 symptoms for 2+ weeks
- Persistent = 2 symptoms for 2+
years at least.
Be familiar with biological, psychological and social-cultural influences of depression
- Bio: genetic predisposition/chemical imbalance
- Psych: stress, trauma
- Socio: expectations, definition of normal behavior, stereotypes
Suicide is the _____ leading cause of death amongst high school and college aged students
_________ involves psychological techniques derived from psychological perspective while ________ _______ involves treatment with medical procedures
Different types of psychotherapies include __________, __________, _________,___________
psychodynamic, humanistic, behavior, cognitive, cognitive-behavioral
Humanistic or client-centered therapies use ________ listening techniques including echoing thoughts, inviting clarification and reflecting feelings
How do behavioral therapists use classical conditioning and operant conditioning techniques?
reinforce good behavior, associate things with disgust like taste aversion, exposure therapy
Cognitive therapies seek to implement new, more _________ ways of ________
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy seeks to address both unhealthy patterns of _______ and also to establish new ________
What are the three basic benefits of all psychotherapies?
1. Hope for demoralized people
2. new perspective for oneself and the world
3. empathetic, trusting, caring relationship
The compatibility between a client and a therapist, often referred to as a ________
________ emphasizes the importance of relationship fit over therapy type
Identify APAs suggestions for when to seek a therapist
1. overwhelming and prolonged helplessness & sadness
2. Difficult to carry out every day activities
3. Worry excessively
4. harmful actions to oneself or others
Know the myth surrounding Electroconvulsive shock therapy.
many think it is harmful or unethical but it has proven to work for many depressed patients when all other forms of treatment of resisted
What are the components of lifestyle change that have been shown to reduce experiences with depression?
exercise, sleep, social connection, thinking positive, supplements
What is unconditional positive regard?
a caring non-judgemental positive attitude toward other people which develops self-awareness and acceptance
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