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54 terms

Organic Molecules

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Organic Molecules
molecules that contain carbon, are complex, and are produced by organisms; carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acid
Tetravalent
a molecule that can make 4 bonds
Complexity
describing a molecule that is more complex than Methane (CH4)
Monosaccharides
simple sugars; glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose, deoxyribose
Glucose/Fructose/Galactose/Ribose/Deoxyribose
monosaccharides that contains Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
Isomers
compounds with the same formula but different structure
Nucleic Acid
complex substance, such as RNA and DNA, present in living cells
Maltose
glucose + glucose
Sucrose
glucose + fructose
Lactose
glucose + galactose
Condensation Reaction
a chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine to produce water or another simple molecule
Cellular Respiration
process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
Hydrolysis
a chemical reaction in which water reacts with a compound to produce other compounds; C12H22O11+H2O=2C6H12O6
Disaccharides
Carbohydrates that are made up of two monosaccharides
Polysaccharides
Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides
Polymers
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
Functional Groups
parts of molecules that give those molecules certain characteristics; hydroxyl groups, carboxyl groups, amino groups, and phosphate groups
Hydroxyl Group
a functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom joined to an oxygen atom by a polar covalent bond. Molecules possessing this group are soluble in water and are called alcohols, -OH
Carboxyl Group
a functional group present in organic acids and consisting of a single carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group, -COOH
Amino Group
a functional group that consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms; can act as a base in solution, accepting a hydrogen ion and acquiring a charge of +1, -NH2
Phosphate Group
a functional group consisting of a phosphorus atom covalently bonded to four oxygen atoms, PO4
Starch
polysaccharide that is the main food energy source for human beings
Cellulose
polysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers that reinforces plant-cell walls
Chitin
polysaccharide that forms part of the exoskeleton of arthropods and other organisms, such as insects, crustaceans, fungi, and some algae
Glycogen
polysaccharide which is the stored glucose energy in liver and muscles
Lipids
fats, oils, and waxes, nonpolar molecules that are not soluble or mostly insoluble in water
Fatty Acid
an organic acid that is contained in lipids, such as fats or oils, can be saturated or unsaturated
Saturated
describing a fatty acid that has only single bonds between carbon atoms
Unsaturated
used of a compound (especially of carbon) containing atoms sharing more than one valence bond, liquid
Hydrogenation
adding hydrogen to unsaturated fatty acids, forcing the liquid to solidfy
Partial Hydrogenation
moving one hydrogen atom to the other side of the molecule creating trans fat
Triglycerides
Large fat molecules composed of three parts fatty acid and one part glycerol
Glycerol
with fatty acids, makes up the building blocks of lipids
Phospholipids
a lipid that contains phosphorus and two fatty acids that is a structural component in cell membranes, creates barrier from water because phosphorous is hydrophilic, while fatty acids are hydrophobic
Steroids
a type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four rings with various functional groups attached
Carbohydrates
organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the proportion of H:O-2:1
Nitrogen
the most common gas in the atmosphere, metabolic poison
Excretory System
the system that removes Nitrogen from your body and controls water balance
Enzymes
protein substances that speed up chemical reactions
Amino Acids
building blocks of proteins
Insulin
smallest Amino Acids
Proteins
nutrients that help build and maintain body tissues, made up of Amino Acids, make up our appearence AND how we function
Peptide Bond
covalent bond formed between amino acids, carbon and nitrogen
Dipeptide
2 amino acids bonded together
Denatured
when a protein loses its natural shape
R Groups
determine chemical behavior of amino acids & give different proteins different shapes
Primary Structure
the first level of protein structure referring to the specific sequence of amino acids.
Secondary Structure
the second level of protein structure referring the regular local patterns of coils or folds of a polypeptide chain
Pleated Sheet
the folded arrangement of a polypeptide in a protein's secondary structure.
Alpha Helix
the secondary structure coiling of a polypeptide chain
Tertiary Structure
the third level of protein structure referring to the overall, three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide due to interactions of the R groups of the amino acids making up the chain
Quaternary Structure
the fourth level of protein structure referring to the shape resulting from the association of two or more polypeptide subunits
Polypeptides
long chains (polymers) of amino acids
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid