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This review covers the Commercial Revolution, The Age of Exploration, the Age of Absolutism, and the Evolution of Constitutionalism in England.

Divine Right Theory

The belief that kings were given the right to rule over the people from God.

James II

Catholic King of Protestant England, from the Stuart dynasty, angered parliament placing Catholics in top government positions.

Political view of Mercantilism

An economic policy which encouraged the role of government in stimulating the nation's economy.

Economic view of Mercantilism

Encouraged the acquisition of colonies, regulated trade, accumulated gold and silver, and created a favorable balance of trade.

Middle Passage

The term associated with the voyage of Africans across the Atlantic during the slave trade.

African Slaves

This was the cheap source of labor necessary for the plantations of North and South America.

Magna Carta

This document, signed in 1215, limited the power of the monarchy of England.

English Monarchy

This European monarchy was forced to respect the law of the parliament.

Middle East Middlemen

This group of merchants motivated the Spanish and Portuguese, to seek out new trade routes to the Far East.

Treaty of Tordesillas

This agreement divided the "New World" between Portugal and Spain.


Devoted Christian Spanish soldiers seeking riches and glory.

English Parliament

The legislative body of England, representing the landowners, who controlled the powers of taxation.

Astrolabe and Quadrant

These new technologies allowed European explorers to journey across uncharted waters.

Glorious Revolution

Removal of the English King James II due to the birth of his Catholic son.

Mother Country

The European nation in the economic system of mercantilism who benefits the most.

Louis XIV's Policies

Wars and Versailles left France on the verge of financial collapse.

Palace of Versailles

This was constructed by Louis XIV to control the nobility of France.

"L'etat c'est moi"

Louis XIV declaration "I am the state"

Stuart Dynasty

English dynasty that challenged the authority of the English Parliament.

Cardinal Richelieu

This minister of France sought to preserve the balance of power in Europe.

The Leviathan

Authored by Thomas Hobbes, this book argued the power of the ruler is absolute.

Favorable Balance of Trade

This economic belief seeks to construct a larger number of exports than imports.


This political idea implies a balance between the authority of the government and the rights of its subjects.


Riots in Paris during Louis XIV, helped develop his beliefs in absolutism.

Iberian Peninsula

This geographic factor enhanced Spain and Portugal's ability to engage in exploration.

Ecomienda System

This colonial agricultural system utilized forced labor.

Edict of Nantes

This document allowed for religious freedom in France, granting Huguenots the rights to freely worship.

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

The action by Louis XIV was taken to ensure religious unity in his absolutist regime.

Columbian Exchange

This name was given to the cultural diffusion (foods were exchanged) that resulted from the age of exploration.


This political system promoted one religion, and total control of all laws by the monarch.


An economic condition where a European power achieve total control of all aspects of trade.


This economic condition where the price of goods increase due to the rise in gold and silver imports.

Military technology

This allowed the Spanish conquistadors to conquer native civilizations.

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