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Arts and Humanities
VUS.11-12: World War II
Terms in this set (67)
When did WWII begin?
September 1, 1939
What started WWII?
Hitler Invaded Poland
What happened after Hitler invaded Poland?
The Soviet Union invaded Poland from the East
What did the U.S. try to do when WWII began?
The US tried to remain neutral for the first 2 years.
What was the Battle of Britain?
The air attack of Britain by the Germans.
When did Hitler attack the Soviet Union?
What was lend- lease?
The U.S., while remaining neutral, gave Britain war supplies and old naval warships in return for military bases in Bermuda and the Caribbean
Which US President was responsible for the lend- lease program?
To what did Franklin Roosevelt compare the lend- lease program?
"lending a garden hose to a next door neighbor whose house is on fire"
What area did Japan invade in the 1930's?
Manchuria and China
Why did Japan invade Manchuria and China?
It sought military and economic domination over Asia
What was the US response to Japan's invasion of China and Manchuria?
The US refused to recognize Japanese conquests in Asia and imposed an embargo on exports of oil and steel to Japan
How did the US try to avoid war with Japan?
The U.S. negotiated with the Japanese until they attacked without warning
When did Japan attack Pearl Harbor?
December 7, 1941
What was the result of the attack on Pearl Harbor?
It destroyed much of the American Pacific fleet and killed several thousand Americans
What was President Roosevelt's response to the attack on Pearl Harbor?
He called this attack a "date that will live in infamy" when he asked congress to declare war.
What happened after we declared war on Japan?
Germany declared war on the United States, because Hitler honored a pact (agreement) he had made with Japan.
Who were the Allied countries?
Britain, France, the Soviet Union and the U.S.
What was the Allied strategy?
Defeat Hitler first
What was the US strategy in the Pacific called?
What was island hopping?
Seizing islands closer and closer to Japan and using them as bases for air attacks on Japan, and cutting off Japanese supplies through submarine warfare against Japanese shipping
What was the Axis strategy?
-defeat the Soviet Union and gain access to their oil fields
-force Britain from the war with air and submarine attacks, before the US could help
Where did Japan invade next?
The Philippines and Indonesia
Where did Japan plan to invade after taking the Philippines and Indonesia?
Australia and Hawaii
What did the Japanese hope to accomplish by taking these areas in the Pacific?
America would then accept Japanese predominance in Southeast Asia and the Pacific, rather than conduct a bloody and costly war to reverse Japanese gains
What happened at El Alamein in North Africa?
German forces threatened to seize Egypt and the Suez Canal but they were defeated by the British
Why did the Germans want to seize Egypt and the Suez canal?
To gain access to Middle Eastern oil supplies and potentially attack the Soviet Union from the south
What happened at Stalingrad?
Hundreds of thousands of German soldiers were killed or captured in a months long siege of the Russian city
What was the result of the German defeat at Stalingrad?
It prevented Germany from seizing the Soviet oil fields and turned the tide against Germany in the East
When and where did the D-Day invasion take place?
June 6, 1944 on the beaches in the Normandy region of France
Who planned the D-Day invasion?
What was the purpose of the D-Day invasion?
To liberate France from German occupation
What was the result of the D-Day invasion?
Despite intense German opposition and heavy American casualties, the invasion was successful
What was the Battle of the Midway or the Miracle of Midway?
American forces defeated a much larger Japanese force as it prepared to seize Midway Island
What was the result of the Battle of the Midway?
The American victory ended the Japanese threat to Hawaii and began a series of American victories in the island hopping campaign
What happened at Iwo Jima and Okinawa?
The American invasions of these islands brought American forces closer than ever to Japan, but both invasions cost thousands of American lives and even more Japanese
Why did the Japanese lose so many soldiers at Iwo Jima and Okinawa?
Their soldiers and civilians committed suicide rather than surrender
Why did the President of the US order the use of the atomic bomb on Japan?
To prevent the horrendous casualties among both American and Japanese forces if America had to invade Japan
Who ordered the use of the atomic bombs in Japan?
Which Japanese cities were bombed?
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
What was the result of using the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki?
The Japanese leaders surrendered avoiding the need for American forces to invade Japan
How did African Americans serve in WWII?
They served in segregated military units and were generally assigned to non-combat roles.
Who were the Tuskegee Airmen?
African American troops who served in Europe with distinction.
Who were Nisei regiments?
Asian Americans who served in the war and earned a high number of decorations.
What was used as communication codes which proved impossible for the Japanese to break?
The Navajo oral, not written, language
How did Mexican Americans serve in the war?
They also served in segregated units.
Why was the Geneva Conventions formed?
To ensure the humane treatment of prisoners of war by establishing rules to be followed by all nations
Did the Japanese follow the guidelines of the Geneva Conventions?
No, the treatment of prisoners in the Pacific often reflected the savagery of the fighting there
What was the Bataan Death March?
American POWs suffered brutal treatment by Japanese after surrender of the Philippines
What is Genocide?
The systematic and purposeful destruction of a racial, political, religious, or cultural group
What was the Final Solution?
Germany's decision to exterminate all Jews
What groups of people did the Final Solution affect?
Jews, Poles, Slavs, Gypsies, and Undesirables (homosexuals, the mentally ill and political dissidents)
What was the purpose of the Nuremberg Trials?
To convict Nazi leaders and others of war crimes
What did the Nuremberg Trials emphasize?
Individual responsibility for actions during a war regardless of orders received
What was the effect of the Nuremberg trials?
The trials led to increased demand for a Jewish homeland
How did the government and industry allocate resources during WWII?
Rationing of essential products
War Bonds and taxes were used for financing the war
Businesses retooled from peacetime to wartime production
How were human resources allocated on the home front?
-women and minorities entered the labor force as men entered the armed forces
-citizens volunteered in support of the war effort
How did the US get necessary personnel for WWII?
They used the draft/ selective service
How did women contributed to America's war effort?
Participating in the workforce to replace men serving in the military. (Rosie the Riveter) They also participated in non-combat military roles.
How did African Americans contribute to America's war effort at home?
They migrated to cities in search of jobs in war plants and campaigned for victory in war and equality at home.
How were Americans of Japanese descent treated during WWII?
They were placed in internment camps
Why were Japanese Americans placed in internment camps?
There was strong prejudice on the West Coast and a false belief that Japanese- Americans were aiding the enemy
What was the Supreme Court's decision regarding the internment camps?
It upheld the government's right to act against Japanese Americans living on the West Coast of the U.S. by placing them in internment camps
How did the government tried to resolve their treatment of the Japanese Americans?
The government made a public apology and financial payment to the survivors at the end of the 20th century.
How did the US government and the mass media assist the Allied efforts during WWII?
The U.S. government maintained strict censorship of reporting the war
How did mass media and communications assist the Allied efforts during WWII?
Public morale and ad campaigns kept Americans focused on the war effort
How did the entertainment industry assist the Allied efforts during WWII?
They produced movies, plays and shows that boosted morale and patriotic support for the war effort as well as portrayed the enemy in stereotyped ways
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