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seed producing vascular plants


seed producing vascular plants are _______ generation dominant


the spore-producing individual or phase in the life cycle of a plant having alternation of generations


"naked seed" (seeds not covered by a fruit, seeds released from cones; nonflowering)

Phylum Cycadophyta

"the cycads"


How many species of cycads?

phylum cycadophyta

Flagellated sperm; frond-like leaves; dioecious (separate sexes); evergreen are all characteristics of _______ .


______ is not needed for reproduction in seed producing vascular plants even though 2 phyla contain sperm which are flagellated; sperm will travel by eggs by pollination contained in pollen


In seed producing vascular plants, _____ is packaged in seed used for dispersal of the species

Phylum Ginkgophyta

only one living species (ginkgo biloba)

Phylum Ginkgophyta

Flagellated sperm; broad-flat deciduous leaves, dioecious


Referring to a plant species that has staminate and carpellate flowers on separate plants.

phylum coniferophyta

"the conifers" (pines, cedars, cypress, fir, spruce, etc.)

phylum coniferophyta

most are evergreen with needle-like leaves;
do not need water for reproduction;
wind carried pollen;
pollination vs. fertilization;

are all characteristics of _______ .


having male and female reproductive organs in the same plant or animal


"enclosed seed" (have flowers; flowering plants produce seeds at the base of a flower resulting in a fruit; only one division)

phylum anthophyta

235,000 species; contains 2 classes: Monocotyledones and Eudicotyledones

class monocotyledones

"the monocots" 65,000 species (corn, lily, orchids, all grasses, etc.)

class monocotyledones

comprising seed plants that produce an embryo with a single cotyledon and parallel-veined leaves: includes grasses and lilies and palms and orchids

class eudicotyledones

"the eudicots" 170,000 species (oaks, hickories, violet, holly, dogwood, birches, poplars, elms, poinsettias, coleus, begonia, roses, geraniums, etc.)

monocot leaf

leaf veins form a parallel pattern

monocot seed

a seed that has one seed leaf and stored food outside the seed leaf; one cotyledon in seed


A "seed leaf" which develops as a part of the seed. It provides nutrients to the developing seedling and eventually becomes the first leaf of the plant.

monocot flower

flower parts in threes and multiples of three

eudicot seed

two cotyledons in seed

eudicot leaf

leaf veins form a net pattern

eudicot flower

flower parts in fours or fives and their multiples

conducting tissue

Seed producing vascular plants have ________, therefore have xylem and phloem and roots, stems, and leaves

plant fertilization

pollen lands on stigma. pollen grain releases tube cell. tube cell divides, formiing a pollen tube all the way to the ovary. generative cell releases two sperm. sperm travel down pollen tube for fertilization. tube enters microphyle.


ovules eventually develop into


the transfer of pollen from the male reproductive structures (the anthers) to the tip of a female reproductive structure (the pistil) of a flower in angiosperms or to the ovule in gymnosperms

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