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Arts and Humanities
Terms in this set (86)
A small opening, which is usually circular in cameras and enlargers. The size of the aperture is variable and adjustable. It regulates the amount of light, which passes through a lens.
An exposure mode on an automatic or autofocus camera that lets you set the aperture while the camera sets the shutter speed for proper exposure. If you change the aperture, or the light level changes, the shutter speed changes automatically.
The available light completely surrounding a subject. Light already existing in an indoor or outdoor setting that is not caused by an illumination supplied by the photographer.
Light coming from behind the subject, toward the camera lens, so that the subject stands out vividly against the background. Sometimes produces a silhouette effect.
Flash or tungsten light bounced off a reflector (such as a ceiling or walls) to give the effect of natural or available light.
B (Bulb) Setting
A shutter-speed setting on an adjustable camera that allows for time exposures. When set on B, the shutter will stay open as long as the shutter release button remains depressed.
Refers to the number of bits available to store color information. A standard digital camera image has a bit depth of 24 bits. Images with more than 24 bits are called high-bit images.
Taking additional pictures of the subject through a range of exposures-both lighter and darker- when unsure of the correct exposure.
Term to describe an image or part of an image that's over-exposed with no detail.
A file format offered by some digital cameras; records the photo without applying any of the in-camera processing that is usually done automatically when saving photos in other formats. Also known as Raw.
The Resolution of an image that you take with your digital camera.
Metering mode that reads the entire scene but gives more emphasis to the subject in the center of the frame.
CCDs (charge coupled devices)
A digital camera converts the picture into digital form by using CCD cells.
The process of copying one area of a digital photo and "painting" the copy onto another area or picture.
The print color model in which cyan, magenta, yellow, and black inks are mixed to produce colors.
Refers to the reproduction of colors in color prints, which can be altered during the printing process.
Better known as chrominance signal-to-noise ratio. A measure of how accurately the color signals are reproduced. Poor chroma signal-to-noise ratios are evidenced in color fringing on edges of objects and what appears to be thousands of moving dots in large areas of highly saturated colors (especially red).
How color is represented in an image file- typically RGB, CMYK, or grayscale.
Reducing the size of an image file for more efficient storage and use.
Is the difference in brightness, darkness, or density between light and dark areas on your image, and also at the scene to be photographed.
Depth of Field
The amount of distance between the nearest and farthest objects that appear in acceptably sharp focus in a photograph. Depth of field depends on the lens opening, the focal length of the lens, and the distance from the lens to the subject.
The mechanism that regulates the size of the aperture.
Lighting that is low or moderate in contrast, such as on an overcast day.
Lightening parts of the image.
The act of letting light fall onto sensors in the camera.
Exposure Meter or light meter
An instrument with a light-sensitive cell that measures the light reflected from or falling on a subject, used as an ai for selecting the exposure setting.
1. Very Sensitive 2. Lens with a very wide aperture 3. A short shutter speed. The opposite is slow.
To fade the borders of an image element so that it blends more smoothly with another layer.
Lack of contrast in a print. Opposite= contrasty.
A way of storing image data in a file.
Additional light from a lamp, flash, or reflector; used to soften or fill in the shadows or dark picture areas caused by the brighter main light. Called fill-in flash when electronic flash is used.
A colored piece of glass or other transparent material used over the lens to emphasize, eliminate, or change the color or density of the entire scene or certain areas within a scene.
The focal length of a lens demonstrates how much magnification it provides. A lens with a shorter focal length will be able to "see" a wider view of a subject than can a lens with a longer focal length, which would see a narrower view of the scene, but at a higher level of magnification.
The point where the light rays refracted by a lens produce a sharp image.
Refers to the size of the camera aperture. A higher number indicates a smaller aperture. Written as f/2, f/8, and so on.
Short for graphics interchange format. A file format often used for Web Graphics; not suitable for photos because it can't handle more than 256 colors.
The range of tones in a print or negative; the span between the highest and lowest densities.
The brightest parts of a subject, represented by the densest parts of a negative and conversely the brightest tones of a print.
Digital form of a photograph
Light sensitive chip inside a digital camera that reads the light coming into the camera.
A numerical system to rate the light sensitivity. The ISO rating doubles as the sensitivity doubles.
A piece or several pieces of glass shaped to produce a projection (image) of a subject.
Stands for liquid crystal display. The display screen included on most digital cameras.
A file-compression scheme that doesn't sacrifice any vital image data in the compression process. Lossless compression tosses only redundant data, so image quality is unaffected.
A compression scheme that eliminates important image data in the name of achieving smaller file sizes. High amounts of lossy compression reduce image quality.
A lens that provides continuous focusing from infinity to extreme close-ups, often to a reproduction ratio of 1:2 (half life-size) or 1:1 (life-size).
One million pixels
Shooting mode in which you choose both aperture and shutter speed.
A camera's removable storage media.
A standard average gray tone of 18% reflection.
Any image in which the dark parts of the subject appear light and the light parts appear dark. Opposite= positive. The negative of a negative is again a positive.
Graininess in an image, caused by too little light, a too high ISO setting, or a defect in the electrical signal generated during the image-capture process.
Moving the camera so that the image of a moving object remains the same relative position in the viewfinder as you take a picture.
Individual colored picture elements that make up a digital image file.
Pixel count of an image file, described as pixels per inch (ppi).
The degree to which a layer allows laters beneath it to show through.
To increase the size of a lens aperture. Opposite= stop down.
A glass-covered opening in your camera that you can kook through to frame and compose your image.
To give more than the usual amount of exposure (time and/or the diaphragm). Opposite = underexposure.
A broad view, usually scenic.
A camera that has a pinhole aperture in place of a lens.
Short for picture element. The basic building block of every image.
A type of digital camera that has automatic settings for most features (such as focus and exposure).
The orientation of an image in which the longest dimension is vertical, also called tall orientation
Stands for pixels per inch. Used to state image print resolution. Measured in terms of the number of pixels per linear inch. A higher ppi usually translates to better-looking printed images.
The number of pixels per linear inch (ppi) in a printed photo; the user sets this value inside a photo-editing program.
Random Access Memory. Your computer's system memory.
Blades, a curtain a plate, or some other movable cover in a camera that controls the time, which regulates the exposure.
A term used to describe the capabilities of digital cameras, scanners, printers, and monitors; means different things depending on the device.
The standard color model for digital images; all colors are created by mixing red, green, and blue light.
Rule of Thirds
A way of mentally dividing your picture horizontally and vertically into thirds, then placing important subject matter where these lines intersect.
A device that captures an image of a piece of artwork, a slide, or a negative, and then converts it to a digitized image or bitmap that the computer can handle.
The length of time that the camera shutter remains open, thereby allowing light to enter the camera and expose the photograph.
An exposure mode on an automatic or autofocus camera that lets you select the desired shutter speed; the camera sets the aperture for proper exposure. If you change the shutter speed, or the light level changes, the camera adjusts the aperture automatically.
SLR (single-lens reflex) camera
A type of camera that includes interchangeable lenses, manual focus, and exposure controls, and connections for an external flash.
Creating a panorama from multiple images by overlapping those images.
Another name for an electronic flash unit, especially when it's used as the only source of illumination.
A lens that makes a subject appear larger on film than does a normal lens at the same camera-to-subject distance. A telephoto lens has a longer focal length and narrower field of view than a normal lens.
Pronounced tiff, as in a little quarrel. Stands for tagged image file format. A popular image format supported by most Macintosh and Windows programs.
A three-legged supporting stand used to hold the camera steady. A tripod is especially useful when using slow shutter speeds and/or telephoto lenses.
Light from regular room lamps and ceiling fixtures, not fluorescent.
A condition in which too little light reaches the film, producing a thin negative, a dark slide, or a muddy-looking print.
Stands for Universal Serial Bus. A type of port included on most computers. Most digital cameras come with a USB cable for connecting the camera to this port.
The device in a camera used to frame the image.
A lens that has a shorter focal length and a wider field of view (includes more subject area) than a normal lens.
A lens in which you adjust the focal length over a wide range. In effect, this gives you lenses of many focal lengths.
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