Weakness of intrinsic muscles of the hand, Dural and nerve root stress has T1 elbow flexion with arm horizontal. T1 and T2 scapulae forward and backward on chest wall. Neck flexion at any thoracic level.
Articular and dural signs and root pain are common. Root signs are rare and have such indefiinite area that they have litt localizing value. Weakness is not detectable.
Psoas, hip adductors
Psoas, quadriceps, thigh atrophy
Tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis
Extensor Hallucis, Peroneals, Gluteus Medius, Dorsiflexors, Hamstrings and Calf Atrophy
Calf and Hamstring, Wasting of Gluteals, Peroneals, Plantar Flexors
Calf and Hamstring, Wasting of Gluteals, Plantar Flexors