29 terms

Helping and Altruism

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Terms in this set (...)

altruism
unselfish concern for the welfare of others
Parts of the brain that are most involved in empathy, altruism and helping
Amygdala and prefrontal cortex
Monozygotic
identical twins
Dizygotic
fraternal twins
Reciprocal Altruism
helping others with the expectation that they will probably return the favor in the future
Social Exchange
a theory that suggests that our behavior is based on maximizing benefits and minimizing costs
Reciprocity Norm
expectation that people will help those who have helped them; if someone helps us, then we should help them in the future, and we should help people now with the expectation that they will help us later if we need it.
Kinship
A social bond based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption
Why does being in a good mood make us helpful?
1)indicates that the environment is not dangerous and therefore that we can safely help others.
2)we like other people more when we are in good moods, and that may lead us to help them
3)the possibility the helping makes us feel good about ourselves, thereby maintaining our positive mood.
guilt
the normal feeling that arises from the conscience when a person acts against internal values
Effects of guilt
1)increases our desire to create positive relationships with other people.
2) This feeling is very comfortable and we will go out of our way to reduce any of this feelings we are experiencing.
3)one way to relieve our uncomfortable feeling is by helping;to try to make up for our transgressions in any way possible, including by helping others.
Empathy
A response in which a person understands, and even feels, another person's distress and experiences events the way the other person does.
Personal Distress
The negative emotions that we may experience when we view another person's suffering. Because we feel so uncomfortable, we may simply leave the scene rather than stopping.
social situation
the people around us when we are deciding whether or not to help— perhaps is the most important influence on whether or not we will help.
Pluralistic ignorance
when people think that others in their environment have information that they do not have and when they base their judgments on what they think the others are thinking.
Diffusion of responsibility
we assume that others will take action and therefore we do not take action ourselves
Affective Reactions
the physical and emotional reaction that a person has to a situation. This can be a reaction of happiness and pride in winning a competition, the shock and sorrow of receiving bad news, witnessing a tragedy or any other appropriate reaction to events.
Inappropriate Affect
term that refers to an individual's display of emotions that do not properly fit a circumstance, such as smiling in reaction to a tragedy, or failing to show emotion at a time when an emotional reaction would normally be called for.
Affect
general term for feelings, emotions, or moods. To say someone has negative affect means that they have feelings, emotions, or moods that are negative in nature. You can think of this as just another way to say "feelings".
dependency oriented helping
the helper takes control of the situation and solves the problem facing the individual, leaving little left for the individual to accomplish on his or her own, the behavior may be seen as indicating that the individual cannot help her/himself.
Autonomy-oriented help
reflects the helper's view that, given the appropriate tools, recipients can help themselves
Individualism
giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications
Collectivism
giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly
Social Responsibility Norm
We should try to help others who need assistance, even without any expectation of future paybacks - involving a sense of duty and obligation.
Latané and Darley's Model of Helping
4 Steps: Noticing, Interpreting, Taking Responsibility, Implementing Action
Noticing
People have to recognize an emergency to be able to respond to it, which can be super difficult in big cities because of the amount of stimuli that are around. People from rural areas are more likely to help than those in big cities because there are less blockades to noticing an emergency
Interpreting
• Even if we notice something, we may not interpret it as an emergency because we tend to take situations as being benign, making the situation often ambiguous in our minds.
• This is made even harder when there are other people around who are also unsure of what's going on - we look to others to remove ambiguity, but when they don't know what's going on, it creates even more uncertainty.
Altruistic (Prosocial) Personality
Some people are more helpful than others across a variety of situations, which means they have this personality. Ppl with this personality tend to show empathy and sympathy for others and feel that it's right and normal to follow the norm of social responsibility - helping more in a variety of areas and also helping faster.
Just World Beliefs
Beliefs that people get what they deserve in life - more held by conservatives than liberals.