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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
Enlightenment, Scientific Revolution, French Revolution, congress of Vienna
Terms in this set (124)
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty. wrote the Leviathan.
Second treatise on Government
by John Locke; addressed the state of nature and natural law
An agreement between the people and their government signifying their consent to be governed
Thinkers of the Enlightenment; Wanted to educate the socially elite, but not the public.
Collection of works compiled during the Enlightenment -explained many aspects of society. Denis Diderot
The Father of the Enlightenment. "I do not agree with a word you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it"
Jean Jacques Rosseau
believed that human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy
Polish astronomer who believed that the Earth orbited the sun. His work was banned by the Church.
English physician and scientist who described the circulation of the blood
Defined the laws of motion and gravity. Tried to explain motion of the universe, created the scientific methood
A new way of thinking about the natural world, based on careful observations, a willingness for people to question accepted.
A book written by Thomas Hobbes describing his theory that an absolute government was the only means of balancing human interests and desires with their rights of life and property.
An English Quaker, founded Pennsylvania in 1682, after receiving a charter from King Charles II the year before. He launched the colony as a "holy experiment" based on religious tolerance.
"natural rights"--believed people were born with certain right; even in a just war (fought in self-defense), nations are obligated to conform to civilized standards of behavior.
Informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophes, and others exchanged ideas
Philosopher who wrote a book called the Encyclopedia which was banned by the French king and pope.
A novel by Voltaire that uses fiction as a method of critiquing society.
This man was the greatest figure of the German Enlightenment. "the mind shapes the world though its experiences".
Used Brahe's data to prove that the earth moved in an elliptical, not circular, orbit. Wrote 3 laws of planetary motion.
French philosopher, 1st principle "i think therefore i am"; believed mind and matter were completly seperate; known as father of modern rationalism
Based on the belief that the sun is the center of the universe
Life, Liberty, and Property
17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
A popular Enlightenment era belief that there is a God, but that God isn't involved in people's lives or in revealing truths to prophets.
author of the Declaration of Independence and the third President of the United States. He was a spokesman for democracy and the rights of man with
Madame de Pompadour
The mistress of Louis XV who used her ability to take away her "services" to gain power and to give advice about and make important government decisions
(1689-1755) wrote 'Spirit of the Laws'
3 branches of government
Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women, in which she called for equal education for girls and boys.
(1738-1794) Italian aristocrat and philosopher, published "crimes and punishment" where he stated that trials and punishments should be speedy and fast. Also stated the law should not be by God's will, but the will of the majority.
He was the first person to use a telescope to observe objects in space. He discovered that planets and moons are physical bodies.
Anton van Leewenhoek
invented the first microscope
Earth centered universe
the overthrow of a government by those who are governed
98% of the population made up of Bourgeoisie, San Cullotes, and the Peasent Farmers
the right to vote
A legistature with one legistative body.
French middle class
Known as the Sun King, he was an absolute monarch that completely controlled France. One of his greatest accomplishments was the building of the palace at Versailles.
1715 Comes to power at age 5, France headed into disaster
last french king (last one that is the absolute monarch)
wife of Louis XVI
a monarchy that is limited by laws and a constitution
France's assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution.
3rd estate declaration that it was the only true govt. in france
A pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution
Medieval fortress that was converted to a prison stormed by peasants for ammunition during the early stages of the French Revolution.
the great fear
..., After Bastille was stormed from one village to the next, wild rumors circulated that the nobles were hiring outlaws to stop revolution. Peasants panicked and stormed manors.
..., A French congress with the power to create laws and approve declarations of war, established by the constitution of 1791.
..., A machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution.
..., Marquis de Lafayette was a French major general who aided the colonies during the Revolutionary War. trained troops
..., "without breeches"; a radical group of shopkeepers and wage earners during the French Revolution who wanted a larger voice in government and an end to food shortages
Declaration of Rights and Man
..., French Revolution document that outlined what the National Assembly considered to be the natural rights of all people and the rights that they possessed as citizens
Constitution of 1791
..., Constitution created by the French Revolution that had a limited monarchy
..., A meeting of party delegates held every four years
..., Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
..., a political faction in France within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention during the French Revolution
..., Ideological view that favors rapid funamental change in the existing social, economic, or political order
..., Ideological view that favors a return to a previous state of affairs-
..., persons who do not hold extreme political views
..., A person who believes government power, particularly in the economy, should be limited in order to maximize individual freedom.
..., A person who favors a political philosophy of progress and reform and the protection of civil liberties
..., Killed Marat in bath tub because she thought that killing him would stop the violence.
..., A military draft
Jean Paul Marat
..., French revolutionary journalist who was a leader of the Girondists and was stabbed to death in his bath by Charlotte Corday
Committee of Public Safety
..., This was the group that carried out the Reign of Terror
..., A French political leader of the 18th century. A Jacobin, a radical leader of the French Revolution. Headed the Committee of Public Safety, responsible for the Reign of Terror, was later executed.
the Reign of Terror
..., 40,000 people died during the Reign of Terror and Robespierre was behind it. The engine of the Terror was the guillotine.
Republic of Virtue
..., Robespierre's attempt to erase all traces of the monarchy, nobility and the Catholic Church
..., Group of five men who served as leaders between Robespierre and the Assembly. Overthrown by Napoleon.
..., Louis XVI's finance minister, a moderate who proposed more taxes but was dismissed
George Jaques Danton
..., new minister of justice who organized the attack on the palace by sans-culottes
Constitution of the Clergy
..., Evolving constitution, important documents, common law, legal codes, and customs.
..., to speak in favor of
..., Napoleon named this after ousting the Directory; remained this until proclaiming himself emperor; first of three
Consul for Life
..., Napoleons nickname in 1802
..., A comprehensive and uniform system of laws established for France by Napoleon
Concordat of 1801
..., - Napoleon made an agreement with Pope Pius VI, that catholicism was main religion of france.
..., The ruler of an empire
..., (October 1805) Britain's Admiral Nelson destroyed the combined French and Spanish navies. Nelson was killed but invasion of Britain now became impossible.
..., Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy.
War of 1812
..., A war (1812-1814) between the United States and England which was trying to interfere with American trade with France.
..., A hit-and-run technique used in fighting a war; fighting by small bands of warriors using tactics such as sudden ambushes
..., Gets credit for defeating Napoleon Bonapart
..., Birthplace of Napoleon
..., The tiny island that Napoleon was granted after his abdication. Off the coast of Italy.
..., place of napoleons second/last exile and death
Liberty, equality and Brotherhood
..., slogan of the french revolution that inspired nationalist feelings and the goal of the revolution
..., Napoleon's first wife
..., the act of crowning
..., -admired Napoleon but grew disillusioned with him; removed Napoleon's name from the dedication of Symphony No. 3, "Eroica", after he declared himself emperor
..., Napoleon's second wife
..., Free groups and outlaw armies of peasants who fled the tzar and service nobility
..., German city where Napoleon lost to the allied Russia, Prussia, and Austria and was officially sent to Elba
..., This was the king of France before and after Napoleon's exile. Bourbon King
Battle of Waterloo
..., This was the battle that Napoleon lost after his return from Elba that ended his reign as French ruler
..., Austrian rulers of the Holy Roman empire and the Netherlands
Duke of Wellington
..., British soldier and statesman; he led the British troops against Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo
Coup de Etat
..., a sudden seizure of political power in a nation
..., Napoleon tried to add Russia to his empire; had a huge army and moved into Russia in September. Russians used the scorched earth policy; Russia retreated and lured them deeper in and burnt everything in their path
..., A direct vote in which a country's people have the opportunity to approve or reject a proposal
..., He lead the Austrian Empire after revolutions of 1848 and relied on military force to subdue all forms of liberalism and nationalism.
..., An Irish foreign minister for England who organized the Congress of Vienna. He was a dominant figure in Europe and was a Tori.
Marquis de Tallyrand
..., chief policy maker in Congress of Vienna for France (no French government, French minister of state)
Tzar Alexander I
Russian representative in the Congress of Vienna
Emperor Frederick William III
..., He was a Prussian representative for congress of vienna
Balance of Power
..., distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming too strong
..., agreements between nations to aid and protect one another
...giving money that the country deserves
..., This was the alliance between Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia after the Napoleonic era
..., not choosing a side in a dispute
..., Principle by which monarchies that had been unseated by the French Revolution or Napoleon were restored
..., A league of European nations formed by the leaders of Russia, Austria, and Prussia after the Congress of Vienna
..., Those who want to restore political, social, and economic institutions that existed in the past.
..., Financial demands placed on loser nations.
..., a country that separates two politcal enemies
Concert of Europe
..., A series of alliances among European nations in the 19th century, devised by Prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent the outbreak of revolutions
..., the belief that people should be as free as possible from the goverment restraints
..., A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
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