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New Testament Test 2.1
Terms in this set (80)
How is Acts related to Luke? Who wrote Acts? How do we know? What do we know about the author of Acts?
- Acts is written by Luke
- It is a sequel to Luke's gospel
- He writes several sections in the first person (I, we)
When was Acts written? What evidence do we have for that approximate date?
- Probably 60's A.D.
- Acts ends w/ Paul preaching "unhindered" Rome, not persecuted
- Nero's terrible persecution in Rome began in 64 A.D; therefore, Luke ends Acts before then
- Book covers 3 decades: from 30's to the 60's A.D.
What are the three major sections of Acts? What verse in Acts serves as an outline for the book? What other structural markers indicate the divisions in the book?
Found in Acts 1:8
1. The Church begins in Jerusalem
2. The Church expands through Judea and Samaria
3. The Church expands through the World
- also 7 summary statements throughout the book
What is the purpose of Acts? How does God's sovereignty play a role in the purpose of the book?
- to explain the beginning and expansion of the church from Jerusalem to Rome
His Sovereignty: all Gentiles can and do now receive salvation; God is sovereignly causing the spread of the Church, despite persecution
What two important sub-purposes for Acts did the professor identify?
1. Luke seeks to prove Paul's validity as an apostle
2. Luke also wishes to demonstrate that Christianity is not a political threat to Rome; the Church is law-abiding
What is the Greek term for "church," and what does it mean literally?
Ekklesia = "gathering" or "assembly"
- those who are called out
What are the two senses in which the church is described in the NT: universal and local?
Universal = the one group of all Christians for all time
Local = the thousands of groups of Christians meeting regularly in their home areas
How does Acts 1 relate to Luke 24?
They overlap with Jesus' final words before His ascension
What are the apostles expecting in Acts 1, when they ask Jesus if He will now restore the Kingdom to Israel? How does Jesus respond?
- The apostles wonder if Jesus will now restore Israel's glory
- Jesus says no, the kingdom will spread to the world through your work
(we are still waiting even 2000 years later)
How does Luke describe the baptism of the Holy Spirit in Acts 2:1-4?
He describes it as a sound like a violent wind, tongues of fire on each one, and they are filled with the Spirit - speaking in languages ("glossa") as the Spirit gave them ability
What are three results of the baptism of the Spirit in Acts 2?
1. The multitude of different ethnic groups all hear the mighty acts of God in their own language
2. Peter proclaims the gospel message boldly - indicates this is part of the "last days" in Joel 2:14-21
3. The crowd is convicted; 3,000 believe in Christ
What are the ways that Luke describes the church's life at the close of Acts 2?
- The church is devoted to the apostles' teaching, fellowship, the Lord's table, and prayer
- They are united in joy, encouraged by miracles, and many come to Christ each day
How do pentecostals, charismatics, the Vineyard, and the Father's Blessing traditions understand the baptism of the Spirit applying today? What is the opposing view of the Spirit's baptism for today?
Pentecostals et al:
- still happening
- empowering christians for living, witness, and exercise of spiritual gifts
- May come with tongues, miracles, being slain in the spirit, etc.
- Not still happening; it was unique to start the church
- Spirit power is available at all times, no need to wait for or seek it
- Any claimed manifestations must be evaluated carefully
Describe the three stages of the church's early life and the initial resistance that it faced, recorded in Acts 3:1 to 6:7.
1. Peter preaches and performs signs
2. Jewish leaders threaten the apostles
3. The church is strengthened
Why is the second major section of Acts (6:8 to 9:31) a "transitional" section?
- The church grows into Judea and Samaria
- Luke records the involuntary growth due to the persecution that arises after Stephen is stoned
What three people stand out in the second major section of Acts? How does the story of each develop the transition of the section?
1. Stephen = the gospel starts to slow to the Jews
2. Philip = the gospel reaches the Samaritans
3. Saul = the gospel messenger to the Gentiles is presented
- Develops the transition through the church's thriving and multiplication
What are the four sub-sections to the third major section of Acts (9:32 to 28:31)? Be able to think your way through a map showing the spread of the gospel from Israel to Rome in these four stages.
Spread of the gospel to:
(start in Judea/Samaria)
1. North to Antioch, Syria
2. West to Asia Minor
3. Further west to Europe
4. All the way west to Rome
In the third major section of Acts, how does the focus of Acts shift from the previous sections (two ways)?
1. Shifts from Peter to Paul
2. Recipients of gospel shifts from Jews to the Gentiles
(The Jews become increasingly antagonistic to the gospel)
When Peter speaks to Cornelius and the Gentiles in Acts 10, what is the result? What change in the makeup of the church does it bring?
- He leads Cornelius and his household to faith in Christ; the Gentiles now receive the Holy Spirit without becoming Jews
- In the next day of ministry at Antioch, both Jews and Gentiles come to faith in grate numbers
- Barnabas retrieves Saul from Tarsus for the ministry at Antioch
How does Luke describe the growth of the church at Antioch, Syria, in Acts 11? What does Barnabus do at Antioch that changes the growth of the church in Acts?
- The church expands from Antioch to Asia minor
- Saul and Barnabas go out on a missions trip
When Paul and Barnabus go on their missions trip in Acts 13-14, what is the pattern of events in most towns that they visit?
1. Paul preaches to the Jews and performs signs
2. The Gentiles believe in great number
3. The Jews persecute Paul, driving him out of town
How do some Jewish believers in Acts 15:1, 5 respond to the Gentiles' faith in Christ?
They begin the debate of whether Gentiles must become Jews in order to be saved
Why is the Jerusalem Council called in Acts 15? What date was it called? What is the result? What two decisive events at the Council lead to those results? How do the Gentile believers at Antioch respond to the Council's results?
- They are called to settle the debate
- Result = gentiles don't need to follow Jewish law
2 Decisive events = paul declares salvation through grace not the law, Paul and Barnabas testify to the faith of the Gentiles
-The Gentiles receive the message with great joy!
Why do Barnabus and Paul separate before their second missions trip? Who comes along with Paul on the second missions trip (two people mentioned in class)?
They had a disagreement about taking along John Mark
Silas and Timothy join Paul
In the third mini-section of the last major section of Acts (16:6-19:20), where do Paul and Silas intend to go to minister? Where does the Holy Spirit lead them?
They intend to go to Asia Minor, but God brings them to Europe
Describe the sequence of events in Philippi that Paul and Silas experienced
- Lydia and others put their faith in the gospel
- He is beat and put in jail after the exorcism of a slave girl
- In chains until an earthquake frees them; they refuse to escape which leads to the jail keeper's conversion
What ministry pattern resurfaces as Paul moves through Thessalonica and Berea?
(same as before)
Many believe, jews run him out of town
How does Luke describe the "noble-minded" Bereans in Acts 17:11 (two ways)?
- of more noble character
- the Bereans receive Paul's teachings with eagerness for truth
In Acts 18, what do we learn about Apollos? What does Aquila and Priscilla do for him?
- Aquila and Priscilla let Paul stay with him (in Corinth)
- Stays here 18 months
- Makes tents while proclaiming the gospel
- Under God's provision
- Apollos is an eloquent speaker who comes to Corinth, and Priscilla and Aquila have him include Jesus in his message
In Acts 19, what does Paul do for a group of disciples of John the Baptist?
He converts them; they receive the Holy Spirit as Paul lays his hands on them
How long does Paul minister in Ephesus? How would you describe that time? How does Luke contrast Paul's power with the Jewish opposition's power? What is the result?
- 3 years
- He heals so powerfully that even his garments have power to cure
- He contrasts Paul w/ the Jewish power so that the name of Jesus will be magnified (not Paul's name)
- Result = those in the occult believe in Christ and burn their objects of worship; God's power rules
What do we know about the most likely candidate as the author of James? Why is it unlikely that he is the apostle James, brother of John the apostle?
- Most likely James the brother of Jesus - who was one of the leaders of the Jerusalem church
- He was antagonistic to Jesus, but came to faith after the resurrection; he was the one to whom Jesus appeared
Approximately when was James written?
Hard to know...
Perhaps late 40's; one of the first NT books written
What is the purpose of James?
To encourage Jewish Christians to live in a way that demonstrates their faith
In what sense is James action-oriented and practical? Why did he write about behavior and action more than theory, according to the professor?
- He is far more interested in Christian behavior and life (rather than just doctrine or position in Christ)
- Perhaps it is a subtle reprimand to Jewish christians (b/c Jews focused on their standing with God instead of obeying him/acting on their love for him)
In what five ways does James describe living faith in the first section of the book (including what each means)?
1. The key to overcoming trials
2. Faith doesn't always speak and get angry, but listens in order to do what is right
3. Faith shows mercy without favoritism
4. Faith produces good works (result, not condition)
5. Faith enables us to restrain our speech
Describe the seven ways James describes wise living in the second section.
1. Personal purity from the world
2. Humility with one another (not judging or speaking against each other)
3. Dependence on God to conduct life and business
4. Wise use of money and material possessions
5. Patiently induring trials, knowing God is coming
6. Praying humbly for one another's needs
7. Restoring the sinning brother or sister
How do faith and works relate, according to James 2?
Faith produces works, and faith without action is dead
They go hand in hand
Approximately when was Galatians written?
Late 40's (one of the first NT books written)
What is the purpose of Galatians?
To defend salvation by faith alone; it is not by trying to keep the law
What are the three sections of Galatians?
1. Paul's apostleship and message defended
2. Justification by faith
3. Freedom in the Spirit
Who are the Judaizers? Why are they a threat to the gospel? What were they saying to the Gentiles about Paul and his teaching?
- Christian pharisees
- Sought to compel the Gentiles to follow the Law
- They discredit Paul's apostleship
What is different about Paul's start to Galatians than his other letters? What does it indicate about his attitude toward the Galatian Christians when writing the book?
He starts with defending his standing as an apostle (usually he begins with praise for his readers...)
- This shows his anger and concern for the Galatians; he has nothing good to say about the Judaizers
What three evidences does Paul argue for his apostleship in chapters 1-2? What conclusion should the Galatians come to about Paul and his message?
1. He received his calling from Jesus directly
2. The apostles at Jerusalem endorsed Paul's message
3. Paul's authority allowed him to rebuke Peter
Conclusion = Paul is a legitimate apostle, so listen to him
What is the essence of Paul's rebuke of the Galatians in 3:1-5? How should they live, now that they have come to Christ for salvation?
"If you couldn't save yourselves through the law, why do you think you can now live by the law?"
- Now live by faith!!!
In Galatians 3:21-25, why was the Mosaic Law given? How is it our "tutor?"
- It was to prove us all as sinners and point us to God's mercy through faith in Christ (not to give us life)
- Used to be our tutor b/c it showed us our need and God's high moral standing, leading us to Christ
What question is addressed in Galatians 5-6, based on the argument of the book to this point? In what four ways does Paul answer the question in Galatians 5-6?
If Paul has apostolic authority and we are justified by faith (not the law), how should we live?
1. In freedom from the law - loving one another
2. In the Holy Spirit's power; displaying his character traits as we submit to his control
3. Restore one another when sin is present
4. Do good for one another in the church and world
What circumstances led Paul to write 1 Thessalonians, according to 3:1-9?
Paul sent Timothy back to check on the Thessalonian believers after Paul was run out of town by the Judaizers
Timothy returns with a good report of the Christians there, and Paul writes this letter as a letter of joy!
From where does Paul write 1 Thessalonians? What is the purpose of 1 Thessalonians?
Purpose = to encourage the Gentile believers by reminding them of Paul's affection he has for them and the great hope they have in Christ
What is Paul's attitude toward the Thessalonians? How is his ministry to them described in 2:1-21?
He is full of praise! Thankful to them for their continued faith despite persecution
His ministry for them is out of love for them
How does Paul encourage the Thessalonians in chapters 4-5?
by reminding them of their great hope in Christ
About how much time passes between the writing of 1 and 2 Thessalonians?
Very soon after sending 1 Thessalonians to them
(I'm guessing a few months or less)
What is the purpose of 2 Thessalonians? What caused Paul to write the book?
Cause = he hears of believers struggling w/ a false rumor that Jesus had already returned and they had been left behind
Purpose = to comfort these believers w/ details about events that must happen before Christ's return
What details about Jesus' return does Paul give in 2 Thessalonians 2:3-12?
- Conditions on earth will deteriorate, with many professing Christians leaving the faith
- When God's restraining force is lifted, all hell will break loose
- Then God will destroy all opposition to Christ when Jesus appears
In 2 Thessalonians 3, what does Paul instruct about lazy busybodies in the church? What two points summarize how Paul wants the church to discipline any lazy believer?
All should work to support themselves
How to discipline lazy believers:
1. Do not associate with him - in order to shame him
2. Do this as a brother, not an enemy (trying to teach him discipline)
1 - 2 CORINTHIANS
When and from where was 1 Corinthians written? How many letters were written by Paul to Corinth, and which ones have survived?
From Ephesus in mid-50's AD
- He probably wrote 4 letters but the first and third were lost (so this is the second one)
What do we know about the city of Corinth at the time of Paul? What was the condition of the Corinthian church when Paul wrote 1 Corinthians?
The church was being divided into factions
- Corinthian christians were struggling to get along and struggling to resist the depraved city influence
- Corinth was a prosperous city, but known for immorality
- Both tremendous wealth and vice at Corinth
What is the purpose of 1 Corinthians? How is the purpose developed in the two major sections of the book?
To unify the church against factions, bringing all areas of life under the Lordship of Christ
1. The church united = Paul seeks to bring them back together
2. Counsel on Christian living = Paul describes how their subjection to Christ plays out in marriage, Christian liberty, church ministries, financial support of the church, etc.
How does Paul express his argument against factions in 1 Corinthians 1-4 (4 ways)?
1. We are all one in the Lord Jesus Christ (used 9x)
2. The message of the cross is the power of the gospel - killing pride and factions (Paul came in power of gospel, not wisdom - so they must rest in God, not human wisdom)
3. True wisdom is possible for spiritual people, but they are still fleshly b/c of their pride and factions
4. Paul chides them for their arrogance compared to the "smallness" of his apostleship; his motive is to correct them
What is Paul's point about divisions and unity in the three issues of chapters 5-6?
(Not quite sure about this one...)
He addresses issues that lead to good divisions
- When they should be united under Jesus, they have factions
- When they should separate from others, they remain sinfully united
How does church discipline relate to believers and to unbelievers in chapter 5?
(This is related to the discipline of an incestuous man and how the church must separate from him)
They must discipline those in the church, NOT unbelievers
How does Paul resolve the issue of lawsuits among believers in chapter 6?
He says to separate from secular courts and settle disputes in the church
- It is better to be cheated on than to sue another believer in court
Why should believers flee sexual immorality, according to 1 Corinthians 6?
B/c your bodies are the temple of the Holy Spirit
Why does Paul address the specific issues that he does in 1 Corinthians 7-16?
He adresses these things b/c they were specific questions he had been asked by the Corinthians
In 1 Corinthians 7, what five points does Paul make about marriage issues?
1. Give yourself to one another in marriage
2. Remain single if possible so you can serve God w/o distraction
3. If you burn w/ sexual desire, get married
4. If possible, remain w/ your spouse until death
5. Generally, it is best to remain as you are
What is Paul's teaching about Christian liberty in general in 1 Corinthians 8-9?
He endorses freedom within perameters, relating to life in general, and to worship as a church
In what way has Paul become "all things to all men," in 1 Corinthians 9?
He becomes like the people he is trying to reach so that he can win the most people to the gospel
-Winsome (likable to all people)
From 1 Corinthians 11:1-17, how should men and women worship?
Express worship distinctly as men and women
How should they celebrate the Lord's Supper, according to 1 Corinthians 11?
Remain pure in your observance of the Lord's supper
What does Paul teach about spiritual gifts in 1 Corinthians 12-14? Why are the gifts given to the church (chapter 12)?
- For church unity and edification, not to boast
- Gifts give us variety in unity w/in the body
From 1 Corinthians 13, what is the most critical ingredient to the proper use of the gifts of the Spirit?
What is "edification?"
Building up/encouraging the church
How should all activity be conducted in church meetings, according to chapter 14?
Orderly and harmoniously
Why is the resurrection important, according to chapter 15 (four points)?
1. It makes our faith effective
2. It proves that we are forgiven
3. It assures us of life after death in changed bodies
4. It proves that we will never die
What final instruction does Paul give in chapter 16?
Give to the poor church in Jerusalem
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