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What is the normal amount of carbohydrates for humans/adults
300g. Energy source 4 kcal/g
Excess carbohydrates are converted to ____ and ____
glycogen and triacyglycerol
Simple sugars =
sugars, fruits, vegetables, and milk
monosaccharides and Disaccharides
Monosaccharides = ____, ____, & _____
glucose, fructose, and galactose
Disaccharides = ____, ____, & _____
Sucrose, lactose, and maltose
___ is in animals, ___ and ___ is in plants
starch and fiber
Glucose is also known as....
what is dextrose
frequently referred to as blood sugar
Glucose rarely occurs as a ___ in food
Fructose is found in
fruits, veggies, and honey!
T/F Fructose causes as great as a rise in blood glucose as other sugars
False, not as great.
Fructose can't be used to maintain blood glucose levels
T/F Fructose causes an increase in blood lipids
True, easily converted to fat
Sucrose is made of ___ + ____
Glucose + fructose
Sucrose is commonly in....
sugar cane, sugar beets, honey, and maple syrup
common white table sugar
Lactose is made of ___ + ____
Glucose + Galactose
T/F Lactose = Milk sugar
Maltose is made of ___ + ____
glucose + glucose
made when starch is broken down
___ and ___ are polysaccharides
starch and glycogen
linear chains of GLUCOSE
alpha - 1,4-glycosidic bonds
branched chains of GLUCOSE
more 1,4 bonds than 1,6 bonds 20:1
alpha-amylase exists in
saliva and pancreatic juice
it hydrolyzes starch and glycogen to maltose and maltotriose
Which 3 enzymes are on the luminal surface of the small intestine
break down obvious to the components above,
example sucrase breaks down sucrose to glucose and fructose
T/F Only monosaccharides are absorbed in the body
Indigestible carbohydrates are metabolized....
/converted to monosaccharides anaerobically by bacteria
an oligosaccharide in leguminous seeds (beans and peas)
cannot be hydrolyzed by human enzymes
Define Glycemic index
measure of how quickly individual foods will raise blood glucose level.
Defined as the ratio of the area of the BG response curve to that of glucose
___ is the preferred energy source for the brain
What is the glucose transporter in the brain
What is the glucose transporter in muscle and adipose tissue
What is the glucose transporter in the liver
Which of the glucose transporters are insulin-independent
GLUT2 and GLUT3
GLUT4 is insulin-dependent
What is the end product of glucose metabolism in RBCs
T/F RBCs have mitochondria
Examples of cellulose and hemicellulose
unrefined cereals, bran, whole wheat
Is cellulose/hemicellulose soluble?
T/F Cellulose/hemicellulose increases stool bulk and decrease intestinal transit time
Lignin is the ____ parts of vegetables
Is Lignin soluble?
What does Lignin do?
binds cholesterol and carcinogens
Pectin is found in...
Is Pectin soluble?
What does Pectin do?
decreases rate of sugar uptake and decreases serum cholesterol
Are lipids an efficient source of energy?
yes, 9 kcal/g
What do lipids do
provides satiety, adds flavor and aroma, carrier for fat-soluble vitamins
Triacylglycerol is >___% of dietary fat
Phospholipids, cholesterol, cholesterol esters, fatty acids are <__% of dietary fat
Describe Saturated fatty acids
no double bonds, higher melting temperature, associated with many health risks
Describe Unsaturated fatty acids
Double bonds, lower melting temp
What are the essential fatty acids?
omega-3 and omega-6
What are the essential fatty acids used for
to synthesize eicosanoids in the body
important thing about omega-3 and omega-6
The ration of omega-3 to omega-6 in the diet is important in regulating processes such as blood pressure, blood clotting, and immune functions
What is the process to convert unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids to produce trans fatty acids as byproducts
T/F a trans fatty acid has a HIGHER melting point than the same fatty acid in the cis conficuration
T/F trans fats raise blood cholesterol levels and increases the risk of heart disease
Does fat need to be solubilized for digestion?
How is fat solubilized?
with bile acids
What do gastric and pancreatic lipases do
hydrolyze triacylglycerol to FAs and monoacyl glycerol
Produced fatty acids act as surfactants
What does esterase do
hydrolyzes monoacylglycerol and cholesterol ester
_____ delivers lipid to peripheral tissues DIRECTLY
Muscle uses ____ as energy source
excess fat is stored in adipose tissues
T/F Brain DOES use fat as an energy source
what happens when jessica is starving herself
liver converts fatty acid to ketone bodies, which are utilized as energy source by brain and muscles
Why are proteins important
essential structural component
enzymes, hormones, plasma proteins, antibodies
excess protein is a source of energy
can proteins make you fat?
What does a negative nitrogen balance mean
inadequate dietary intake of protein, trauma or illness
What does positive nitrogen balance mean
Net increase in body protein stores
happens in growing children, pregnant women, or adults recovering from illness
Where does intake of nitrogen come from
proteins in diet
What nitrogen is excreted as
urea and ammonia
Essential amino acids cannot be synthesized by the body or are but not enough as we need
If essential amino acids are not in the diet, new proteins cannot be made without breaking down other body proteins, this means....
negative nitrogen balance
What are the essential amino acids?
arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine
What are the nonessential amino acids?
alanine, aspartate, asparagine, cysteine
, glutamate, glutamine
, serine, tyrosine*.
MEMORIZE this set, the rest are in the other
What is the pH of gastric juice?
low pH denatures proteins
pepsins - stable and active at acidic pH - gastric digestion
Describe intestinal digestion
peptidases at the luminal surface
brush border - luminal surface of epithelial cells
rich in peptidases
produces free amino acids and di and tripeptides
Practically only free amino acids are released to blood
Utilization of amino acids ...
absorbed amino acids are delivered to liver through portal vein
Amino acid metabolizing enzymes in the liver have a ____ Km values
tRNA-charging enzymes have much ____ Km values for amino acids
Gluten intolerance is also known as
celiac disease or celiac sprue
digestive disorder in genetically predisposed individuals
caused by exposure to gluten
damage to the villi lining of the small intestine (diarrhea, weight loss, malnutrition)
Excess energy is stored mostly as fat in the ____ tissue
T/F Protein is not a preferred energy reserve
What happens in the well-fed state
catabolism of amino acids
fatty acid synthesis
What happens in the early fasting state
gluconeogenesis - cori and alanine cycle
no catabolism of amino acid
Explain the Cori cycle kind of
glucose GENERATED by gluconeogenesis in the liver is used for glycolysis in a peripheral tissue
important when oxygen supply is not enough
RBCs rely on this
Explain the Alanine cycle kind of
Glucose generated by gluconeogenesis in liver is used for glycolysis in a peripheral tissue
amino nitrogen is transferred to liver and disposed of as urea
What happens in the Fasting state
Protein is used as a major carbon and nitrogen source
Lipolysis in adipose tissue
Reduced triiodothyronine production --> the daily basal energy requirement drops by 25% --> slows down metabolism to conserve the stored energy
Is glucose is carefully regulated?
some statistics of glucose and the brain
brain uses 20% of energy
100-120g of glucose per day
15-20% of the total energy
constantly need energy
Is there energy storage in the brain?
no, no glycogen storage, brain does not use fat --> can indirectly use with ketone bodies
Low level exertion exercise uses....
fatty acid oxidation, aerobic
Moderate to high activity exercise uses...
glycogen to glycolysis
switch over to fatty acid oxidation
Maximum exertion exercise uses...
phosphocreatine and glycogen
lactic acid production
very little inter-organ cooperation
infants and young children, reduced ability to fight off infection
inadequate intake of both protein and energy
thin, wasted appearance.
small for his/her age
inadequate intake of protein WITH adequate energy intake
mainly in children 1-3 years of age
deceptive plump appearance due to edema
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