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Food prep professional cooking 1 stp
Questions and answers for final test
Terms in this set (35)
What is a food hazard?
Any substance in food that can cause illness or injury is called food hazard.
Name the 4 different types of food hazards and give examples .
1. Biological, Pathogens(microorganisms).
b.Viruses (Hepatitis A)
c.Fungi (Molds and Yeast)
d.Parasites (Trichinosis) Pigs
2.Chemical (Kitchen equipment, chemicals.
3.Physical ( Jewelry,glass, hair,insects)
4.Allergens ( Nuts ,eggs, wheat,dairy,fish and shellfish
What are the six conditions that bacteria require to grow.
2. Acidity Alkaline pH (4.6-7.6) is ideal
3. Time, Lag Phase bacteria need to adjust to new environment the longer food is out in the danger zone more opportunity they have to grow.
4.Temp. bacteria grow rapidly between 41-135 degrees,worse 70-125 degrees.
5. Oxygen aerobic need oxygen to grow anaerobic . Bacteria in metal cans. Botulism .
6.Moisture Bacteria grow in food with high levels of moisture.
What is HACCP? Name the seven steps.
Hazard analysis critical control point system
1. Access hazards
2. Identify critical control points
3. Establish critical limits
4. Establish monitoring procedures.
5. Establish corrective actions
6. Verify that the system works.
7. Set up a record keeping system
How do you kill bacteria?
Most bacteria are killed if they are subjected to a temperature of 170 degrees for 30 seconds or higher for shorter times.
What are the temperatures for heat sanitizing and Chemical sanitizing?
Heat 212 boiling water of 171@30 Sec.
Chemical Quats @30 seconds
Describe the various knife cuts and their dimensions.
Large Dice 3/4 X3/4X3/4
Medium Dice 1/2x1/2x1/2
Small Dice 1/4x 1/4 x 1/4
Brunoise 1/8 x1/8 x1/8
Fine Brunoise 1/16 x1/16 x1/16
Batonnet 1/4 x 1/4 x 2
Julienne 1/8 x1/8 x 2
What are the five mother sauces and their ingredients?
1.#1. Béchamel ("bay-sha-mel"). Commonly known as White Sauce.
2. Velouté ("vuh-loo-tay"). Béchamel made with stock instead of milk. The sauce is generally referred to by the bones used in the stock, for example, Fish Velouté.
#3. Espagnole ("es-puhn-yohl"). Commonly known as Brown Sauce.
#4. Hollandaise ("ol-uhn-dehz"). The classic butter sauce.
#5. Tomate ("toe-maht"). The basis of many Provençal dishes
Béchamel Ingredients and steps?
1.Roux (pronounced "roo") is one of the basic thickening agents in the culinary arts. roux is made from equal parts fat and flour, and the "equal parts" are measured by weight, not volume.
2. milk to a simmer over a medium heat, stirring occasionally,Using a wire whisk, slowly add the hot milk to the roux. stick the pointy end of the clove into the onion and drop them into the sauce. Simmer for about 20 minutes or until the total volume has reduced by about 20%,Remove the sauce from the heat. retrieve the clove-stuck onion and discard.Season the sauce very lightly with salt and white pepper. Be particularly careful with the white pepper — and the nutmeg,Cover until service.
Velouté ingredients and steps.
Clarified butter over low heat then add mirepoix, sweet vegetables without browning. Add flour and make a blond roux. Gradually add stock to the roux beating constantly. Bring stock to a boil.When blended reduce to a simmer. Add the sachet. Simmer sauce slowly for 1 hour. If using season if in another sauce. Strain in china cap covered with cheese cloth.
Espagnole sauce and ingredients
50% cup onions, diced
25%cup carrots, diced
25%cup celery, diced
2 Tbsp clarified butter
2 Tbsp all-purpose flour
6 cups brown stock
¼ cup tomato purée
-------- For Sachet: --------
1 bay leaf
½ tsp dried thyme
3-4 fresh parsley stems
1 Brown mirepoix in butter.
2 make a brown roux clarified butter
3 gradually add brown stock and tomato puree until mixture comes to boil.
4 reduce heat skim add sachet and simmer for 2 hours until sauce is reduced by 2/3.
5 Strain through china cap extract juices from mirepoix.
Sauce Tomate and ingredients.
2 oz. salt pork, diced
2 cups onions, diced
1 cup carrots, diced
1 cup celery, diced
1 clove garlic, minced
2 28-oz. cans crushed tomatoes
1 quart veal or chicken stock
1 ham bone
Kosher salt, to taste
Sugar, to taste
-------- For Sachet: --------
1 bay leaf
1. Render salt pork in sauce pot
2. Saute mirepoix do not brown.
3.Add tomato,bones and sachet. Bring to boil,reduce heat cook on low heat for 1 1/2 to 2 hours .
4. remove bones and sachet then strain through food mill. season salt sugar
Hollandaise Sauce and ingredients.
1 cup clarified butter (about 2½ sticks before clarifying)
4 egg yolks
2 Tbsp lemon juice (the juice from 1 small lemon)
1 Tbsp cold water
Kosher salt, to taste
Cayenne pepper (or a dash of Tabasco sauce), to taste
1.Combine the egg yolks and the cold water in a stainless steel bowl,whisk for a minute or two, until the mixture is light and foamy. Whisk in a couple of drops of lemon juice, too.
2. Set the bowl directly atop a saucepan of simmering water.Whisk the eggs for a minute or two, until they're slightly thickened.
3.Remove the bowl from the heat and begin adding the melted butter slowly at first, a few drops at a time, while whisking constantly. If you add it too quickly, the emulsion will break.
4.Continue beating in the melted butter. As the sauce thickens, you can gradually increase the rate at which you add it, but at first, slower is better.
5.After you've added all the butter, whisk in the remaining lemon juice and season to taste with Kosher salt and cayenne pepper. It will have a smooth, firm consistency. If it's too thick, you can adjust the consistency by whisking in a few drops of warm water.
How do you make a white stock?
1.Rinse bones in cold water.
2.Transfer the bones to a heavy-bottomed stockpot.Add enough cold water to the pot to completely cover the bones. Figure about a quart of water for each pound of bones.
3.Bring pot to a boil, then immediately lower the heat to a simmer.Skim off the scum that rises to the surface.
4.Add chopped carrots, celery and onion, (also called mirepoix) to the pot along with a sachet d'epices; tie the sachet string to the stockpot handle for easy retrieval later.
5.Continue to simmer the stock and skim the impurities that rise to the surface. Liquid will evaporate, so make sure there's always enough water to cover the bones.
6.After 4 to 6 hours, remove the pot from the heat.
7.Strain the stock through a sieve lined with a few layers of cheesecloth. Cool the stock quickly, using an ice bath if necessary.
What are the simmering times for different bones in white stocks?
Beef bones 8-10 hours
Veal bones 6-8 hours
Chicken bones 3-4 hours
Fish bones 30- 45 min
Procedure for making brown stock?
1.Preheat oven to 400°F.
2.Place beef or veal bones in a heavy bottomed roasting pan. Drizzle them with a bit of vegetable oil .Brown well
3.transfer the bones to a heavy-bottomed stockpot.Add enough cold water to the pot to completely cover the bones. Bring to simmer.
4.Drain and reserve fat from roasting pan,deglaze pan with water and add to stock pot.
5. Toss the mirepoix with reserved fat and brown in oven. Add tomato paste and continue to brown.
6. Add to stock pot with sachet and continue to simmer. Veal 6-8 hours beef 8- 10 hours. Add water as needed to cover bones.
7. Strain cool store.
Whats a fish fumet?
Fumets are made for sauces.
Made by sweating the fish bones and mirepoix in fat and deglazed with white wine ,sachet and water to cover takes 45 minutes.
What is fish stock ?
fish bones, white mirepoix and sachet with water simmered for 45 minutes.
Whats the difference between a broth and a stock?
The difference between a broth and a stock is a broth is made by simmering meat and vegetables and a stock is made by simmering bones and vegetables.
Definition of temper
To slowly raise the temperature of a cold liquid gradually by slowly stirring in a hot liquid.
Definition of liaison?
A binding agent usually made from cream and egg yolks, used to thicken sauces and soups.
A mixture of raw starch and cold liquid used for thickening.
Define white wash?
A thin mixture or slurry of flour and cold water.
Whats a Beurre Manie ?
A mixture of equal parts raw butter and flour mix into a smooth paste to thicken sauces.
Whats a reduction ?
a liquid concentrated to evaporate water and concentrate its flavors.
What is boil?
Cook a liquid that is bubbling rapidly at
What is simmer ?
to cook a liquid that is bubbling gently at a temperature of 185-205 F
What is poach ?
to cook a liquid usually a small amount that is hot but not bubbling 160-180F
Used to cook delicate foods fish and eggs.
What does it mean to blanch?
Cook an item partially or briefly. Ex loosen skin of tomato.
What method of cooking is steam?
Cook foods by directly exposing them to steam.
What is braise?
To cook covered in a small amount of liquid.Combination cooking /browning an item first the adding the liquid to tenderize the meat.
What does it mean to roast?
To cook foods by surrounding them with hot,dry air usually in an oven.
What does it mean to broil?
To cook wit radiant heat from above.Used for tender meats,poultry,fish and some vegetables.
What does it mean to saute?
To cook quickly in a small amount of fat in a hot saute pan
What is en papilote?
Food wrapped in parchment or foil so the enclosed food is steamed.
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