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Motor Development Theories and Principles
Terms in this set (16)
Define Motor Development
Motor development is the process of change in motor behavior experienced over the lifespan.
This includes age-related changes in
both posture and movement; two basic ingredients of motor behavior.
Explain the Neural-Maturationist Theory
Pioneered by Gesell, McGraw, Shirley & others.
Theory depends on assumption of hierarchic maturation of CNS structures.
Development of more complex motor behaviors is based on maturation of progressively higher CNS levels.
-Infant initially exhibits spinal level reflexes in response to touch or pain s/a flexor withdrawal
-As NS matures, reflexes and reactions mediated by brainstem and midbrain emerge s/a ATNR
-Finally, voluntary control from the cortex is seen with purposeful movement s/a walking or reaching
Pediatric PT developed according to which model of development?
What did Gesell Contribute to pediatric PT
a load of doodoocaca
Gesell's research findings resulted in development of tests of motor milestones and other behaviors which continue to be important today in diagnosis of developmental delay.
E.g. Bayley Scales of Infant Development
Gesell described several important developmental principles including:
Principle of developmental direction
Principle of individuating maturation
Principle of reciprocal interweaving
What did McGraw contribute to pediatric PT
tons and tons of doodoocaca
McGraw conducted longitudinal study of infants in which she described intra-task developmental sequences for
McGraw correlated these motor developmental changes with maturation of the CNS.
Explain the Behavioral Theory of Development
Developmental progression depends on opportunities and circumstances inherent in individual and in their environment.
this contributes to the environmental component of development
ex: feral child
Explain the Cognitive-Perceptual Theory
Piaget proposed theory which emphasizes interaction between maturation of cognitive/neural structures and environmental opportunities.
Cognitive-Perceptual perspective emphasizes the importance of sensory processing and the effect that cognitive abilities related to sensory processing have on acquisition and performance of motor skills.
Perceptual information reinforces posture + Movement
What does the neural-maturationist theory fail to take into account?
Doesnt take into consideration environment, sensory integration, and cognitive development
Explain the Dynamical Systems Theory (DST)
In DST model, movement is described as emerging from an interaction of multiple body systems and the environment to produce movement.
DST incorporates biomechanical aspects of the mover, developmental status of child's CNS and environmental context in which movement occurs.
currently drives most research in motor development
What are the four assumptions of the dynamical systems theory
Every action, s/a walking, requires cooperation of multiple systems including neuromuscular, musculoskeletal, biomechanical, cognitive, sensory, SI, perceptual & cardiopulmonary.
Behavior emerges in a self-organizing fashion.
Component structures & skill processes develop in asynchronous, non-linear manner.
Different systems act as control parameters at different periods in development.
Explain the outdated (1997) study using only 8 infants for 1 month on treadmill training and why their conclusions are somehow appropriate for a 2014 DPT curriculum.
Results showed that training led to increased number of steps and aided transition from multiple stepping patterns to more alternate stepping.
They concluded that developing neuromotor system was amenable to training especially when performance is unstable.
Give the view on "stages" of motor development for each of the following developmental theories:
-stages are a result of CNS maturation
-stages are merely empirical descriptions of behavior
-Stages represent alternating periods of equilibrium and disequilibrium
-Stages are states of relative stability arisinf from self-organzing emergent properties of multiple systems
What are the building blocks of development for each of the following developmental theories:
-pavlovian and operant responses to environmental stimuli
-first actions using reflexes and later from voluntary actions
-Multiple cooperating systems with individual rates of development and self-motivated exploration of the environment
Explain the principle of developmental direction:
Development proceeds head to toe (cephalo-caudal) and proximo-distal.
-there are some exceptions but this is generally true
Development is also:
Asymmetric to symmetric
Gross motor to fine motor
Extension to flexion
Mobility to stability
Explain sensitive periods in development:
Heriza (1991) proposed that sensitive periods exist in development of locomotor behavior. These transition periods are critical points for therapeutic intervention.
DST suggests that when children are in such a period of instability, it represents opportunity to direct motor development.
Explain periodic equilibrium in a spiraling pattern
Heriza (1991) updated principle originally espoused by Gesell "Reciprocal Interweaving"
She states that development proceeds not as a linear process, but in a continuous spiral where structure and function jointly mature.
includes periods of stability and instability or change
includes progression, regressions, symmetry and asymmetries