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Freshwater, Uses and the Water Cycle, and Stream Erosion and Deposition
Terms in this set (66)
what are human uses for water?
What percent of water is saltwater on earth?
What percent of freshwater is on earth?
what to groups is the Freshwater on earth divided in to?
The ice cap glaciers and Available to us
(Liquid to gas) Due to heat of the sun.
(Liquid to gas) through plant leaves
(gas to liquid) water vapor that combines with dust and dirt to make clouds
Any form of water that falls from clouds and reaches Earth's surface, ex: rain, sleet, snow, hail
Downward movement of water through the ground and it recharges groundwater supplies.
water held underground beneath the earths surface
Water on the surface of earth. ex: Lake, ocean, pond, river, creek
any water that is flowing downslope
what are the factors that affect runoff?
rate of precipitation
determines runoff or infiltration. clay always leads to runoff.
Steeper the slope, more runoff. Determines velocity (speed)
Rate of Precipitation
Affects the amount of water soil takes in. Gentle precipitation, groundwater. Hard precipitation, runoff.
Allows more water to enter the ground. Bare ground has a lot of runoff. vegetation allows infiltration.
what are the parts of a stream?
particles held up by the water
Particles that dissolve in the water.
Particles that sink to the bottom.
how much sand, rocks, seashells it can hold. The faster the water, the more it can carry.
what is the longest river in the US?
What is the largest drainage basin in the US
What is the largest river in the world?
what are the parts of a river?
where a river begins
smaller streams and rivers that flow into another river or body of water.
where a river flows into another larger body of water
a region of land where all of the water flows to a stream or river.
a piece of land that separates a river basin
the course or pathway that a river takes
the way the river carries its contents
a depositional feature at the base of a mountain that is fan shaped.
Depositional feature where the mouth of the river opens up to the ocean. triangular shaped. sediments deposits sediments.
natural levees-raised river banks caused by flooding
artificial levees-an embankment built to prevent the overflow
a barrier to obstruct the flow of water
what are the advantages if a dam?
storage place for water
what are the disadvantages of a dam?
increase accumulation of sediments in water
expensive to build
destruction of natural habitats for animals and plants
the area beside the river that potentially be flooded. very fertile land.
curve in a river. erosion occurs in the outside of a bend and deposition occurs on the inside of a bend.
A meander cut off from a river.
What is a lake?
depression in early that collects water. meteor, glacier.
how does a lake get its water?
too many nutrients
what are the pros to eutrophication?
adding nutrients and photosynthesis
what are the cons to eutrophication?
areas of land that are covered by water at least part of the year
what are the roles of wetlands in the ecosystem?
wetlands prevent flooding by holding water much like a sponge
natural water quality improvement
shoreline erosion control
fish and wildlife habitat
natural products for economy (etc. shellfish, timber, blueberries, medicines)
what are the types of wetlands?
gets water from rain
has peat moss
large, woody plants
becomes cool reserves
at mouth of streams
constant supply of freshwater
an ecosystem in which fresh water from rivers mixes wish salt water from the ocean, also referred to as brackish water.
the taking away of our wetlands (land that's covered in water)
loss of wetlands caused by humans
what are some human activities that degrade wetlands?
the measure of the degree to which water looses its transparency due to the presence of suspended sediment (the Mississippi river is an example of a high turbidity body of water)
what are the changes caused by turbidity?
sediment from erosion
re-suspended sediments from the bottom
oxygen dissolved in the water
what is dissolved oxygen caused by?
rapidly moving water (increase)
increased temp (decreased)
discharge from sewer pipes (decrease)
how hot or cold something is
what are changed in temperature caused by?
source of water
depth of water
shade from shoreline
factory thermal pollution
fertilizer ingredients used in agriculture
species that are used to monitor the health of an environment or ecosystem (population) (individual health) examples: amphibians