Chapter 6 Test
Terms in this set (143)
When does the adrenal gland become active?
when a person is angry or frightened
What hormones does the adrenal gland release?
epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine
What is the function of the adrenal gland?
-increases the heartbeat and breathing
-helps generate extra energy to handle difficult situations
What does cortisol do?
-helps with muscle development
-causes the liver to release stored sugars for emergencies
What is the function of the occipital lobe?
where visual signals are processed
What is the function of the parietal lobes?
concerned with information from the senses from all over the body
What is the function of the temporal lobes?
concerned with hearing, memory, emotion, and speaking
What is the function of the frontal lobes?
concerned with organization, planning, and creative thinking
What is the function of the somatosensory cortex?
What is the function of the motor cortex?
sends information to control body movement
What is the left hemisphere responsible for?
-controls the movement of the right side of the body
-mathematical ability, calculation, and logic
-understanding language, reading, and writing
-analyzing separate pieces that make up a whole
What is the right hemisphere responsible for?
-controls the left side of the body
-visual and spatial relations
-putting together a puzzle
-understanding of art and music
-creativity and intuition
-understanding simple sentences and words
Where is the hindbrain located?
the rear base of the skull
What is hindbrain responsible for?
the most basic processes of life
What makes up the hindbrain?
Where is the cerebellum located?
in the forebrain at the base of the spinal cord
What is the function of the cerebellum?
helps to control posture and balance
What is the function of the medulla?
controls breathing and a variety of reflexes
Where is the medulla located?
in the forebrain but it extends up into the midbrain
Where are the pons located?
in the forebrain but they extend up into the midbrain
What are the functions of the pons?
-interconnects messages between the spinal cord and the brain
-produces chemicals needed for sleep
Where is the midbrain located?
above the pons
What is the function of the midbrain?
integrates sensory information and relays it upward
What parts compose most of the brain stem?
Where is the reticular activating system located?
spans across the midbrain, medulla, and pons
What is the function of the reticular activating system?
alerts the rest of the brain to incoming signals
What does RAS stand for?
reticular activating system
Where is the forebrain located?
covers the brain's central core
What makes up the forebrain?
What is the forebrain responsible for?
controls the "higher" thinking processes
What are the functions of the thalamus?
-integrates sensory input
-a relay station for all information that travels to and from the cortex
-all sensory information except smell enters here
-information from the eyes, ears, and skin enters and is then sent to the appropriate areas in the cortex
Where is the hypothalamus located?
in the forebrain just below the thalamus
What are the functions of the hypothalamus?
-monitors the amount of hormone in the blood and sends out messages to correct any imbalances
-controls hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior
-controls the body's temperature so that we sweat and shiver
What is the cerebral cortex?
-the outer layer of the forebrain
-surrounds the hindbrain and brain stem
-about 1/2 inch thick
What are the functions of the cerebral cortex?
-gives the ability to learn and store complex and abstract information
-to project thinking into the future
-allows you to see, read, and understand sentences
-the conscious thinking proce
What is the cerebrum?
the inner layer of the forebrain
What does the cerebrum allow you to do?
Where is the limbic system located?
the core of the forebrain
What is the function of the limbic system?
to regulate emotions and motivations
What makes up the limbic system?
What are neurotransmitters?
chemicals released by neurons
What are the functions of neurotransmitters?
-to determine the rate at which other neurons fire
-to open chemical locks or excite the receptors
What is norepinephrine responsible for?
memory and learning
What is endorphin responsible for?
What is acetylcholine responsible for?
movement and memory
What is dopamine responsible for?
learning, emotional arousal, and movement
List 4 neurotransmitters.
What is the function of the autonomic nervous system?
controls involuntary activities like heart beat and stomach activity
What makes up the autonomic nervous system?
-the sympathetic nervous system
-the parasympathetic nervous system
Where is Broca's Area located?
the frontal lobe of the dominant hemisphere
What is the function of Broca's Area?
What are the functions of Wernicke's Area?
Where is Wernicke's Area located?
the temporal lobe on the left side
What does ANS stand for?
autonomic nervous system
What does CNS stand for?
central nervous system
Where makes up the central nervous system?
-the spinal cord
What is the spinal cord?
nerves that run down the length of the back
What is the function of the spinal cord?
to transmit most messages between the body and the brain
What could occur with an undersupply of acetylcholine?
What could occur with an oversupply of dopamine?
What could occur with an undersupply of dopamine?
What happens when there is an undersupply or oversupply of neurotransmitters?
What could occur with an undersupply of norepinephrine?
What is a concussion?
a mild traumatic brain injury
What is the corpus callosum?
a band of fibers that connects the cerebal hemispheres
What is the function of the corpus callosum?
to allow communication between the two hemispheres
What are dendrites?
short, thin fibers that stick out from the cell body
What is the function of dendrites?
to receive impulses, or messages, from other neurons and send them to the cell body
What is an EEG
What is an electroencephalograph (EEG)?
a machine used to record the electrical activity of large portions of the brain
What does an electroencephalograph (EEG) allow?
millions of neurons to be monitored at the same time
What is the endocrine system?
a chemical communcation system by which messages are sent through the bloodstream
What does the endocrine system use to send messages?
What are hormones?
chemical substances that carry messages through the body in the bloodstream and other body fluids that are properly received at a specific organ that they influence
What is the function of ductless glands/endocrine glands?
to release hormones directly into the bloodstream
What is the function of duct glands?
to release their contents through small holes onto the surface of the body or the inside of the digestive system
What are 3 examples of duct glands?
What do hormones affect?
-growth of bodily structures (muscles and bones)
-what you are able to do physically
-the metabolic processes
-how much energy you have to perform actions
-physical differences between males and females
-moods and drives
What are fraternal twins?
-twins who come from two different eggs fertilized by two different sperm
-genes are the same as any normal brother and sister
What are genes?
the basic building blocks of heredity that are reproduced and passed along from parent to child
What affects the behaviors produced by genes?
their role in building and modifying the physical structures of the body
What is heredity?
the genetic transmission of characteristics from parents to their offspring
What does it mean when someone has hypothyroidism?
there is too little thyroxine
What happens when a person has hypothyroidism?
-they feel lazy and lethargic
-they eat very little and still gain weight
What does it mean when someone has hyperthyroidism?
there is too much thyroxine
What happens when a person has hyperthyroidism?
-they lose weight and sleep and tend to be overactive
-they have problems with temperature and sleep
-they are able to eat a lot and gain little/no weight
What are identical twins?
-twins who come from one fertilized egg
-have the same heredity and genes
What does CAT stand for?
computerized axial tomography
What is computerized axial tomography (CAT)?
an imaging technique used to study the brain to pinpoint injuries and brain deterioration using radiation to get a 3D view of the brain
What does PET stand for?
positron emission tomography
What is positron emission tomography (PET)?
an imaging technique used to see which brain areas are being activated while performing tasks by injecting a slightly radioactive solution in the blood to measure the amount radiation absorbed by the blood cells
What does MRI stand for?
magnetic resonance imaging
What is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)?
an imaging technique used to study brain structure and activity
What is testosterone?
the male sex hormones
Where is testosterone produced?
What is estrogen?
the female sex hormones
What produces estrogen?
What is progesterone?
a female sex hormone
Where is progesterone produced?
What did John Watson do?
-emphasized the importance of environmental effects on behavior
Did John Watson support nature or nurture?
What is a monozygote?
a single fertilized egg
What is a dizygote?
two fertilized eggs
What is the myelin sheath?
a white, fatty substance
What are the functions of the myelin sheath?
-to insulate and protect the axon for some neurons
-to speed up the transmission of impulses
What is nature?
the idea that behavior is dependent on the characteristics that a person inherits and their biological make up
What is nurture?
the idea that behavior is based on environmental factors such as family, culture, education, and individual experiences
What are neurons?
the long, thin cells of nerve tissue along which messages travel to and from the brain
What is the parasympathetic nervous system responsible for?
-enhancing the body's ability to recover from strenuous activity
-reducing the heart rate and blood pressure to help bring the body back to its normal resting state
What are seizures?
uncontrolled electrical activity in the brain that begins in either hemisphere and spreads to the other
How are seizures sometimes treated?
Did Sir Francis Galton support nature or nurture?
What did Sir Francis Galton discover/believe
success runs in families due to heredity
What does SNS stand for?
somatic nervous system
What is the somatic nervous system?
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls voluntary activities
What occurs in a split-brain operation?
the corpus callosum in severed, separating the two hemispheres of the brain and cutting of the communication between hemispheres
What are effects of split-brain operations?
-a reduction in the severity of seizures
-a decrease in the number of seizures
-the inability to put right brain and left brain functions together
What did P.B. Neubauer do?
studied the emotional impact on children witnessing violence in televison
Who is Phineas Gage?
a man who survived an accident at work where a rod if tamping iron went through his skull
What where the effects of Phineas Gage's accident?
-a complete negative change in personality
-damage to the frontal cortex which prevented him from censoring his thoughts and ideas
Where is the pituitary gland located?
under the hypothalamus
What is the function of the pituitary gland?
to secrete a large number of hormones which control the output of hormones by other endocrine glands
What is the sympathetic nervous system responsible for?
-preparing the body for dealing with emergencies or strenuous activities
-speeding up the heart to hasten the supply of oxygen and nutrients to body tissues
-constricting some arteries and relaxing others so that blood flows to the muscles where it is needed
-increasing blood pressure
-suspending some activities such as digestion
What is the synapse?
the gap that occurs between the axon terminals of the sending neuron and the dendrites of the receiving neuron
What did Thomas Bouchard do?
researched identical twins, Jim and Jim, that were separated at birth
What was found from the research of the Jim twins?
-they had many strange coincidences/similarities that are usually associated with experiences
-suggested that heredity may have contributed to the similar behaviors
What does the thyroid gland produce?
What are afferent neurons/sensory neurons responsible for?
relaying messages from the sense organs (including eyes, ears, nose, and skin) to the brain
what are efferent neurons/motor neurons responsible for?
sending signals from the brain to the glands and muscles
What are interneurons responsible for?
carrying impulses between neurons and the body
What are lobes?
the different regions into which the cerebral cortex is divided
What is the nervous system?
an electrical communication system
What is sheathing?
a fatty substance on neurons
What does the cell body contain?
What is an axon?
a long fiber that carries the impulses away from the cell body toward the dendrites of another neuron
What is the biggest, most dominant part of the brain?
What are the functions of the pre-frontal cortex?
-helps to make long-term decisions
-helps to plan for the future
Where is the pre-frontal cortex located?
What receives a hormone?
the receptor cells
What are follicle-stimulating hormones responsible for?
the growth of the reproductive system
What are lutenizing hormones responsible for?
sex hormone reproduction
What is prolactin?
-secretion of female sex hormones
-responsible for milk production
What is thyroxin responsible for?
stimulating certain chemical reactions for the metabolism
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