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Rocks and Minerals
- Properties of Minerals - Classifying Rocks - Igneous Rocks - Sedimentary Rocks - Metamorphic Rocks - Rock Cycle
Terms in this set (70)
What is a mineral?
1. Naturally Occurring
3. Definite Chemical Composition
5. Crystal Structure
Why is coal not a mineral?
Coal isn't; inorganic, it doesn't have a crystal structure, it doesn't have a definite chemical composition. It has two features which are similar to a mineral which are naturally occurring and solid.
What is inorganic mean?
It isn't made from the remains of a plant or a living thing.
What is the crystal structure?
1. A crystal has flat sides called faces.
2. They meet at sharp edges and corners.
3. The particles inside of the material have a repeating pattern that becomes a solid called a crystal.
What is the definite chemical composition?
It always has the same elements inside of the mineral. Example. Quartz has silicon and oxygen.
Example of a mineral that isn't a compound is copper, silver, gold.
How many minerals are there in the world?
Name some of the properties which can be used to identify a mineral?
Streak, Luster, Moh's Hardness Scale, Color, Density, Crystal System, Cleavage and Fracture, and some Special Properties
Give some example of colors and mineral names?
What is a streak?
The color of the minerals powder.
Pyrite Greenish, Black
Gold Golden Yellow
The color and the streak of the mineral can be different True or False?
True. The streak of a mineral will never change but the color may.
What is luster?
How the light reflects off from a minerals surface.
Talc Waxy, Pearly, Greasy
What is density?
Mass - Volume
Example of low density is quartz
Example of high density is galena
Density of a mineral always stays the same no matter what
How do we define hardness of a mineral?
WIth Moh's Hardness Scale. It ranks ten minerals from softest to hardest
Talc, Gypsum, calcite, fluorite, Apatite, Feldspar, Quartz, Topaz, corundum, diamond. Feldspar cannot be scratched by a steel knife but it can scratch window glass.
Which mineral can scratch steel?
How many crystal systems are there?
How do geologists sort out the minerals into the crystal systems?
The number of faces and the angle of faces.
What are the six crystal systems names?
Mineral Crystal System Specialty
Magnetite Cubic magnetic
Quartz Hexagonal breaks easily
Rutile Tetragonal can't melt easily
Sulfur Orthorhombic melts easily
Azurite Monoclinic reacts to acid
Feldspar Triclinic cleaves in two directions
What does cleavage mean? Give an example of a mineral that splits evenly.
Cleavage is when a mineral splits easily along a flat surface.
Mica and Feldspar
What is fracture?
Fracture describes how a mineral looks when it breaks apart in an irregular way.
Copper, Iron form jagged points quartz has shell shaped fracture
Which mineral has fluorescence?
Which mineral has optical properties?
Which mineral has reactivity?
What minerals are there in granite?
Hornblende, Mica, Feldspar, Quartz.
How many minerals make the Earth's crust and what are they called?
20. They are called rock-forming minerals.
What is granite?
It is a rock which is light colored. It has high silica content.
What is basalt?
It is a rock that is dark colored. It has low silica content.
How can you identify rocks?
Using there color, and shape of crystals inside them and texture. Also by testing how they react with acid.
What is a grain?
Grains are particles of minerals that make up a rock. Grains give the rock a texture. Examples of texture are rough, chalky, smooth, glassy.
What are different sizes of grains?
Coarse-grained easy to see and large. Fine grained you can only see with microscopes. Example of coarse- grained is diorite. Example of fine grained is slate. No visible grain flint.
How do you define the rocks texture?
With the grain size, shape, and pattern.
What are some examples of grain shape?
Like sans, seed, or the shape of the crystals, or fragment shapes. Examples of rounded grain are conglomerate and example of jagged grain is breccia.
What are some examples of grain pattern?
nonbanded or banded. Example of nonbanded is quartzite and an example of banded is gneiss.
What are the three main groups that rocks are classified into?
Igneous rocks, Sedimentary rocks, and Metamorphic rocks.
How does an igneous rock form?
It forms from the cooling of magma or lava.
How does a sedimentary rock form?
It forms when pieces of rock are pressed together and cemented together.
How does a metamorphic rock form?
It forms from other existing rocks that are changed by heat and pressure.
If a rock is found deep underground what rock could it be?
What are two types of igneous rocks?
Extrusive and intrusive.
What is an extrusive rock?
It is a rock formed from lava that erupted onto Earth's surface.
What is an intrusive rock?
It is an igneous rock that formed when magma hardened beneath the Earth's surface.
Give an example of an extrusive rock.
Give an example of an intrusive rock?
Which is an igneous rock that lacks crystal structure?
Which rock has a coarser texture intrusive or extrusive?
Intrusive because magma cools slowly below Earth's surface.
Example is granite.
Which has finer texture?
Extrusive because it forms rapidly cooling lava.
Give examples of both types of igneous rocks.
Extrusive- fine grained- rhyolite and basalt
Intrusive- coarse grained- pegmatite and porphyry and granite
Which has larger crystals fine grained or coarse grained?
What all minerals form the rock?
Silica, and other rocks
What is a sediment?
Small solid piece of material that come from rocks or living things. It could be a rock particle , shell, bone, leaf, stem. Its not individual its a rock containing all of these things.
How do sedimentary rocks form?
They form when sediment is deposited by water or wind.
What is the series of processes that form sedimentary rocks?
Erosion, Deposition, Compaction, Cementation.
What is erosion?
Erosion is when running water, wind, or ice loosen and carry away fragments of rocks.
What is deposition?
Deposition is the process by which sediments settle out of the water or wind carrying it.
What is compaction?
Compaction is the process that presses sediments together.
What is cementation?
Cementation is when the dissolved minerals crystallize and glue particles of sediment together.
What are the three types of sedimentary rocks?
Clastic rocks, Organic rocks, and Chemical Rocks.
What is clastic rock?
Clastic rocks form from the particles of other rocks. Ex. The size of the rock fragments which are small is shale, sandstone and conglomerate. If the fragments are round they are conglomerate. Sandstone is formed from Quartz. A rock that is made of sharp edges is breccia.
What is organic rocks?
Organic rocks form where the remains of plants and animals are deposited in thick layers. Ex. Limestone is made from shells that are in the ocean, Coal is formed from swamp plants that layers build up over millions of years.
What is chemical rock?
When minerals that are dissolved in a solution crystallize which is how a chemical rock forms. limestone that is made from shells is organic but limestone that is made from precipitated calcite is a chemical rock.
What is rock salt?
Rock salt is made from the mineral Halite. It is made when water evaporates.
How are metamorphic rocks formed?
They are formed by heat and pressure in the Earth's surface.
What can metamorphic rocks form out of?
Sedimentary rocks and igneous rocks and other metamorphic rocks as well. They are classified by the arrangement of grains that make up the rock.
What are the two types of metamorphic rocks?
Foliated and nonfoliated.
Ex. Foliated- slate,schist, gneiss- grains in parallel layers
Ex. Nonfoliated- marble and quartzite.- random grains
What does granite(igneous) change into?
gneiss is flat and foliated
What does Sandstone(sedimentary) change into?
quartzite is nonfoliated
What does Shale(sedimentary) change into?
slate is foliated
What is the rock cycle?
The rock cycle is a series of processes on Earth's surface and in the crust and mantle that slowly change rocks from one kind to another.
How does the igneous rock form in the rock cycle?
The igneous rock granite formed beneath the surface.
How are plate tectonics related to the rock cycle?
Plate movements start the rock cycle by helping to form magma, the source of igneous rocks. Plate movements also cause faulting, folding, and other motions of the crust that help to form the sedimentary and metamorphic rocks.
When do igneous rocks form?
When oceanic plates move apart or when a oceanic plate and a continental plate collide.
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