Terms in this set (146)
in this econ there are free markets and less state regulation. The market forces of supply and demand control the economy. It involves specialization and relies on transportation and communication. In mercantilism trade is regulated and manufacturing is limited but monopolies are offered. In an agrarian econ, their independent of foreign trade or they depend on cash crops while limiting manufacturing and development.
An anti-foreign feeling that arose in the 1840's and 1850's in response to the influx of Irish and German Catholics. it reflected a fear that the united states was being taken over by foreigners. Nativism found a political expression in the e Know-Nothing party.
native American party
1845 nativists held a convention in Phili, forming Native American Party (not related to Indians). Formed the supreme Order of the Star-spangled banner, endorsing: banning catholics or foreigners from holding public office, literacy tests for voting. Very secret, members known as "know-nothings" --> after election of 1852 created new political party "American Party" lasting effect was the destruction of the existing whig and democratic party system (which then formed into new national alignments)
supreme order of the star spangled banner
an order signed by multiple nativists groups, demands included; banning Catholics or aliens from holding public office, enacting more restrictive naturalization laws, and establishing literacy tests for voting.The order also adopted a strict password "I KNOW NOTHING"= leads to the formation of the Know-Nothing Groups
a nativist political movement in the United States in the 1850's. It was organized to oppose the great wave of immigrants who entered the United States after 1846. Know-Nothings claimed that the immigrants—who were principally Irish and Roman Catholic threatened to destroy the American experiment. It led to the collapse of the existing party system and made new national political alignments.
Biggest construction project by the Americans opened 1825. due to its heavy traffic, the tariff paid the cist of construction in 7 years. increased trade, commerce, and settlement in NW.
corporations had advantage of getting lots of shareholders through this new type of company. As incorporation laws loosened up, it got easier to make corporations with just paying a fee. Limited liability meant that the owner only had to risk losing his initial investment in the company if it fell. It allowed the increase of manufacturing and expanded credit with banknotes. It was really unstable though.
New agricultural technology
Created less destructive methods that increased the life of soil. new seeds, better breeds, better tools (iron plow), 1847 machines made steel plows. It increased production and expanded areas of settlement. These techniques decreased labor
Common Wealth v. Hunt
Supreme court of Massachusetts ruled that labor unions were not illegal conspiracies, provided that their methods were "honorable and peaceful." This enlightened decision did not legalize the strike overnight throughout the country, but it was a significant signpost of the times. 1842
short staple cotton that grew successfully in the south. The cotton gin made it easier to process and it dominated the lower south. It brought in 200 million a year. It drew settlers to the S. and slave population grew too.
the lower south where short-staple cotton dominated. It was known as the cotton kingdom. Settlers came here because of the profit of cotton and slave population increased here
James B.D. DeBow was the most significant advocare of S economic independence. Published a magazine promoting S commercial and Agricultrual expansion. Went from 1846-1880. Advocated S independence from N and warned of the dependence of s on n.
what S. called slavery because it was special. It isolated the S and as isolation increased, so did their need to defend slavery. Led to the creation of African American culture because of the isolation, creating a racial line but maintaining a codependency.
laws of the slave institution: couldn't have property, couldn't leave without permission, couldn be out after dark, could gather with other slaves only at church, couldn't carry weapons, couldn't hit a white person, couldn't learn to read or write, couldn't testify against a white, couldn't marry, owner could kill a slavem slave got death penalty for mutiny to a white. They also contained rules determining a persons race. Enforcement wasn't consistent but it gave white people control.
Task and Gang
2 systems used by large plantaitions to assign slave labour. Task system common in rice culture was where each slave fot one task in themorning and that's all. The gang system was more common and used for cotton, sugar, and tobacco. Slaves put into groups each were directed, the overseer determined the hours the slaves worked. It gave large plantations a way to function without the owner present.
They physically had it easier and lived on large plantations close to the master andn family, The didn't like being isolated from the other slaves and didn't have privacy. They received punishments more often and were sexually abused and otherwise abused too. No type of slavery was better than the other. household slaves were the first to leave during emancipation.
the slaves in the city were more free and did various errands alone. THey were used profitably and not well supervised. SOme were on contracts in mining or lumbering. Others worked in construction, drove wagons, or other unskilled jobs. Kids and women worked in mills, they all had more opportunity to mingle. Slavery was incompatible with city life. Segregation increased but so did mixed races, the segregation made up for lack of discipline.
organized a rebellion of 1000 slaves outside Richmond. 2 slaves tattled and he along with 35 others was executed. it was one of the FEW slave rebellions towards whites.
1822, a free back. With 9000 followers prepared for a revolt but plan was leaked and they got suppressed and there was retribution. Ats of rebellion by a free black was even rarer and showed unhappiness in freedom too.
slave preacher who led armed blacks from house to hous killing whites until they were stopped by troops. Only slave insurrection in 19th century S., despite that, fear of slave rebellion was still there.
common lang between slaves. Mix of African and enflish, became more sophisticated and lasted for many generations. Helped develop a slave culture by providing communication between e/o
mosy slaves were Christian but added African aspects. Joined their masters relifion. Added things like voodoo, polytheism, own preacher, more emotion, dream of freedom and deliverance emphasized. These influenced Nat Turner, Prosser, Vessey, and others who resisted.
Born a slave, escaped to MA and became a speaker for antislavery. CAme back from lecturing gin England and bought his freedom. Made an anti slavery newspaper, demanded freedom. Greatest black abolitionist evert and increased influence of abolitionists. Made alliances with antislavery whites.
syst helped slaves get refuge in Canada and N. Freed them slavery
Prigg v. Pennsylvania
1842 - A slave had escaped from Maryland to Pennsylvania, where a federal agent captured him and returned him to his owner. Pennsylvania indicted the agent for kidnapping under the fugitive slave laws. The Supreme Court ruled it was unconstitutional for bounty hunters or anyone but the owner of an escaped slave to apprehend that slave, thus weakening the fugitive slave laws. Personla libery laws in N protected fugitives.
abolitionist in Kansas who was commited and considered self godsend to destroy slavery. oved to KA with sons to make it a free state. Participated in tunneling money and arms to resistence movements. Led to civil strife in KA. Killed 5 pro slavery settlers with 6 followers.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Harriet Stowe wrote 1851-2, sold 300000 copies in a year, Emotions combined with politics in this novel created sensations. It put antislavery into literature and gave it to a new audience. It influenced sectional tensions to a whole new level of passion
Poet of American democracy. Hired a printer and published "Leaves of Grass". Poems celebrated democracy, liberation of the individual, and of the pleasures of flesh and spirit. Expressed his personal desires too He was gay and had to hide it. Helped liberate verse from traditional and restrictive conventions but also helped express spirit of individuals.
Edgar Allen Poe
One of the few Southern writers to search for human spirit. Had a sad life and wrote sad stuff. His first work wasn't recognized. The Raven, his poem, published in 1845 established him as a major literary figure. He created images of people rising above intellect ad going deeper into spirit that was painful and scary. Had a big effect on European poets and was exception to S. literature
theory of individuals based on distinction between reason and understanding. Reason wasn't rational, was the ability to grasp beauty and truth and was the highest human faculty. Understanding was use of narrow intellect in an artificial manner forced on by society, Repressed instinct and obstructed learning. Motto was to liberate from understanding and cultivate reason and transcend limits of intellect and emotions of the soul to get closer to the universe. Nature source of deep inspiration. Anticipated 20th century environmental movement. Spawned Brook Farm.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
leader of creators of transcendentialist philosophy. Taught it too, drew large crowds to his teachings and was most important intellectual of his age. Known for his essays and eloquent lectures
Practiced polygamy, communal property, and communal raising of children. A redefinition of gender roles was central, the Oneida Community founded in 1848 in upstate New York. founded by John Humphrey Noyes. Residents of the community called themselves "perfectionists" and rejected traditional notions of family and marriage.The community believed that they were free of sin and perfect in this world, not just Heaven (a belief called Perfectionism). practiced communism and everyone had a job.
Founded Mormonism in New York in 1830 with the guidance of an angel. 1843, Smith's announcement that God sanctioned polygamy split the Mormons and let to an uprising against Mormons in 1844; translated the Book of Mormon and died a martyr.
A Mormon leader that led his followers to Utah in 1846 to escape persecution. Under Young's management, Mormon community became prosperous. He became the territorial governor in 1850. Unable to control the hierarchy of Young, Washington sent a federal army in 1857 against the harassing Mormons. Brigham Young led the Mormons essentially to their freedom establishing a home in Utah. However, his untraditional beliefs caused many controversies and forced Washington to march a military campaign in order to contain the Young who was becoming to powerful.
2nd great awakening
(1800-1840)Established religious fervor that was characterized by revivals and emotional preaching. Emphasized free will and the individuals role in determining his/her eternal fate. Charles Grandison Finney was its most prominent preacher; others included Peter Cartwright and the Beechers. Sign: helped spur a whole series of reform movements; increased membership in religions like Methodists and Baptists: encouraged blacks and women to play a key role in religious services.
..belief that God existed in only one person (hence unitarian), and not in the orthodox Trinity; denied the divinity of Jesus; stressed the essential goodness of human nature; believed in free will and the possibility of salvation through good works; God as a loving father; followed by Ralph Waldo Emerson; appealed to intellectuals whose rationalism and optimism made them not support the hellfire doctrines of Calvinism (especially predestination and human depravity)
"Burned over District"
area of New York State along the Erie Canal that was constantly aflame with revivalism and reform; as wave after wave to fervor broke over the region, groups such as the Mormons, Shakers, and Millerites found support among the residents.
A crusade against drunkenness spurred by evangelical Protestantism. American Temperance Society was formed where people pledged to avoid alcohol for the greater good.
A Quaker who attended an anti-slavery convention in 1840 and her party of women was not recognized. Early feminist, who worked in liberal causes, particularly slavery abolition and women's suffrage. Her home was a station on the underground railroad. With Elizabeth Cady Stanton, she helped organize the first women's rights convention, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848.
Seneca Falls Convention
1848 First national convention of women's rights activists. Began with a Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions, based on the Declaration of Independence.declared "all men and women are created equal" and listed women's grievances against laws and customs that discriminated against them.
William Lloyd Garrison
An abolitionist who became editor of the Boston publication the Liberator in 1831. Under his leadership the Liberator gained great fame. He attacked everything from slave holding, to moderate abolitionists. He supported northern secession
An anti-slavery newspaper written by William Lloyd Garrison. It drew attention to abolition, both positive and negative, causing a war of words between supporters of slavery and those opposed.
idea that America was destined to expand altruistically to spread its liberty. It drove settlers W in 1840s. Reflected national pride and vision of social perfection at the time. Ot was publicized and widely supported
unionist and politician arguing expansion W would unstabilize America. Distinguished senator from Kentucky, who ran for president five times. Strong supporter of the American System, a war hawk for the War of 1812, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and known as "The Great Compromiser." Created Missouri Compromise. Outlined the Compromise of 1850.
James K Polk
S democrat that became president 1844. Addressed Oregon and Texas questions when others didn't. Expanded union and supported war with Mexico
War over boundary with texas initially but then America decdided to claim more land. Resulted in the victory and expansion of U.S., John C. Fremont won battles on California; Zachary Tyalor defeated large forces in Mexico
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
February 2 1848. The agreement between President Polk and the new Mexican government for Mexico to cede California and New Mexico to the US and acknowledge the Rio Grand as the boundary of Texas. In return, the US promised to assume any financial claims its new citizens had against Mexico and to pay the Mexicans $15 million. Raised questions about slavery on territories
amendment to 1846 appropriation bill by david wilmont (antislave democrat) prohibiting slavery in Mexico. Subject of debate for years in house and sentate, reflecting sectionalism.
people of each territory through state legislation decided their status on slavery. Idea was used in Kansas too later on.
Compromise of 1850
Clays proposal combining measures: CA a free stae, territorial governments in mexico, abolition of slave trade, effective fugitive law. Eventually all of it was approved bit by bit.
Pacific NW territory including Oregon, wa, ID, Montana, and Wyoming. Joint occupation with british for 20 years. Only owned half of the entire thing. Attracted traders, missionaries, maerchants, and became American majority. SOurce of debate in regards to boundary lines
54 40 or fight
reference to where U.S. wanted to draw the N. border of Oregon. Became a symbol of support for Mexican war.
General Wingield Scott
Whigs military hero who was elected candidate for 1852 elections. commanding general and finest soldier in army who captured Mexicos capital and led to creation of treaty of Guadalupe-hidalgo
democratic senator from illinios who was spokesman for econ needs of W and railroad construction. Became a presidential candidate. Passed missiouri compromise by splitting it up into differenct meseaurs. Took part in debates with Lincoln who claimed he had no moral stance on slavery
party of N who wanted slavery gone. It threatened white democracy and U.S. economic power. shoerd how many N had personal intrest in mind when voting against slavery and not for moral purposes.
Fugitive Slave Act
Act requiring N to return slaves to masters if they ran away, part of 1850 compromise. Spawned opposition in N, S became more convinced that seccesion was necessary.
Document frim Ostend Belgium that envoys sent Polk in 1854 making case for seizing Cuba by force. Made N mad, thought government wanted to bring more slave states into Union
New territory organized in 1845 introduced as a bill. S opposed because it would be a free state as it was N or Missouri comp line. Inserted a provision that status of slavery determined by popular sovereignty. Area divided into 2 areas, Nebraska free and Kansas slave. Birth of two new states
much political turmoil happened as people from N. and S. went to KA to influence the stance on slavery. thousands of Missourians came over and pro-slavery forces elected a legislature legalizing slavery. President Pierce denounced anti-slavery leaders as traitors and threw them out. Later pro slavery posse sacked the town. N and S blamed eachother for the massacre. It became a symbol of sectional crisis.
abolitionist in KA, commited zealot who considered self as an instrument of Gods will to destroy slavery. Moved to KA with sons to make it a free state. Gathered 6 followers and killed 5 pro-slave settlers. Led to civil strife in KA.
John Browns raid
planned to seize a fortress in VA where he could create a slave insurrection in S. oct 18, 18 followers attacked and seized control. Slave uprising didn't occur and was ended in arsenal by citizens and troops. He and 6 others found guilt and hung. White S convinced that they weren't safe in the N. They believed republican party was supporting John. It suggested N was commited to making a Slave insurrection
dred scott v Sanford
scott was a slave in MI and his master brought him to Illinois and WI which were free states and he died. Scott sued for freedom because slavery was outlawed. Circuit court declared him free. Sanford, the brother of the widow claimed ownership. Attorney claimed scott had no standing bc he wasn't a citizen. It was a defeat for anti-slave movements.
Pro-slaves met in 1857 at Lecompton and made a constitution lefalizing slavery without giving voters a chance to reject. election for new legislation was called and antislavery group won. Legislation submitted Lecompton constitution and was rejected. Buchnan persuaded president to admit KA under constitution and it was rejected again. KA became a free state in 1861 after seccession of S states from N.
Strip of territory running through AZ and NM that the US purchased from Mexico in 1853; President Pierce authorized this purchase to secure that the southern route of the transcontinental railroad (between Texas and California) would be in American territory.
submitted by senator john j critteden of KY called for constitutional amendments guaranteeing permanenct slavery in slave states. wanted to resestablish missiouri comp line but republicans didn't agree because it would change their mission that slavery couldn't expand. It was the last attempt to compromise between N and S before the civil war begun
island in SC. ran low on supplies and Lincoln didn't wanna surrender siege, send them ship saying no troops or munitions would be sent if supply ships met no resistance. S knew permitting access was submission but firing was aggression. They fought and sent general beauregard. Anderson refused surrender, S bombarded island for 2 days until surrender. The first battle in the civil war
1863 grant driving at Vicksburg, one of the confederate strongholds. Moved to a better terrain and attacked from behind. Six weeks later,S surrendersed with other stronghold, signaling union's goal being completed: to control Mississippi.
july 1-3 1863 VA union army positioned on hills, Lee attacked and was outnumbered on cemetery ridge. Picketts charfe was the second attempt. They had to surrentdener and withdrew on july4. S didn't threaten N territory after that.
president of confederacy. seccionist before the war, Was a terrible president, no cabinet or secretary of war. didn't actually give leadership and spent too much time on formalities.
Ulysses s grant
1864, Lincoln found a general he trusted who shared belief of targeting enemy army and resources. Gave Lincoln broad outlines of plans for approval.
union ship showed up after merrimals attack. battle with VA ship, put a stop to raids. introduced the use of ironclad ships in war
Act passed by the Republican Party slowing citizens to claim 160 acres of public land and purchase it for a small fee after living on it for 5years. It led to creation of several colleges and universities. (Combined with Morril land grant) which also lead to national bank acts
National bank acts 1863-64
A new banking system where existing or newly formed banks joined if they had enough capital and were willing to invest in 1/3 of government securities. Then these banks could issue u.s. Treasury notes as currency. This created a uniform currency but also led to the use of paper currency
Also known as the peace democrats who were Lincoln's greatest political issue. They thought that agri and the NE were losing influence to industry and E. they believed the republican nationalism was eroding state rights it led to expar te merryman
Ex parte merryman
Where clement vallandigham a copper head, was seized by military authorities and chief Taney issued this unit that required Lincoln to release this seccesionist leader. Lincoln refused.
VP of Lincoln and a war democrat who opposed his state (TN) decision to secede from the union.
Where congress passed an act in 1861 which declared all slaves used for insurrectionary purposes would be freed.
Signed by Lincoln jan 1st 1863. This claimed that all slaves in the areas of the confederacy were to be freed. This doesn't apply to the border space states.
54 MA infantry
Fighting unit of blacks with a whitewater. These soldiers dug trenches and transported water. It led to the returning of escaped slaves in the S.
Provisional president of the confederate government who was considered an unsuccessful president because he rarely showed national leadership.
Principal military advisor of president Davis of the confederacy and commanded forces in the furled. He became general in chief. He contributed greatly to the battle at Antietam creek and the battle of Gettysburg.
An ironclad warship that was renamed virginia in 1862 that was created by the confederates. Was In a battle with Monitor
A confederate general that took part in the attack if harpers temy and was fataly wounded during the battle of Chancellorsville.
Where Meade and lee encountered e/o and fought from July 1-3, 1863. On July 4th lee surrendered due to losing nearly 1/3 of his army. The confederacy wasn't able to threaten northern territory.
March to sea
Led by Sherman of union army who burned towns and plantations and destroyed supplies of confederates from Georgia to NC. Led to surrender of johnston
Where lee arranged to meet grant in Appomattox courthouse VA.
Located near sharpsburg where mcclellans 87,000men army fought lees 50,000 September 1862. 6000 soldiers died that day.
1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs
Lincoln's reconstruction plan
1. amnesty to all but few southerners who took oath of loyalty 2. 10% percent of state voters (1860 elect.) taken oath could organize state gov. 3. members of conf. gov officers of army, former federal judges, members of congress could not receive amnesty
1864 Proposed far more demanding and stringent terms for reconstruction; required 50% of the voters of a state to take the loyalty oath and permitted only non-confederates to vote for a new state constitution; Lincoln refused to sign the bill, pocket vetoing it after Congress adjourned.
13th 14th 15th amendment
113th amendment abolished slavery 14ht amendment declared you could not limit the rights of citizens. 15th amendment allowed all men to vote no matter their color but women were still not allowed to untill the 1920s.
The first order of buisness in these southern governments was to enact black codes, laws that restricted freedmen's rights. The black codes established virtual slavery with provisions such as these: Curfews, Labor Contracts, Limits on women's rights, and land restrictions.
congressional reconstruction plan
In mid-1866, radical republicans overrode the president's vetoes of the Civil Rights Act and Freedmen's Bureau Act. In addition, Congress drafted the 14th Amendment, . Also during this period of Reconstruction the 15th Amendment was passed and black codes are eliminated., 10 southern states were divided into 5 military districts in 1867; register voters; Congress sovereign in all governing decisions in South; ratification of Southern state constitutions only need majority of actual voters rather than those registered; black voters registered
tenure of office act
1866 - Enacted by radical Congress, it forbade the president from removing civil officers without consent of the Senate. It was meant to prevent Johnson from removing radicals from office. Johnson broke this law when he fired a radical Republican from his cabinet, and he was impeached for this "crime".
Democratic nickname for southern Republicans; former Whigs who were interested in economic development for their state and peace between the sections. the democrats thought they were plundering the souther treasury for the union.
A derogatory term applied to Northerners who migrated south during the Reconstruction, especially those who took advantage of opportunities to advance their own fortunes by buying up land from desperate Southerners and by manipulating new black voters to obtain lucrative government contracts.
civil rights act 1875
the Civil Rights Act of 1875 made it illegal to segregate schools, places of public accommodation, modes of transportation and juries. In 1883, the Court ruled the Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional, arguing that the right to segregate public accommodations and other public spaces was an individual right, inviolable by law.
After the Civil War former landowners "rented" plots of land to blacks and poor whites in such a way that the renters were always in debt and therefore tied to the land.
1872; tarred Grant's presidency; Union Pacific Railroad insiders formed this construction company and then hired themselves at inflated prices to build the railroad line, earning dividends as high as 348 percent; furtively distributed shares of its valuable stock to congressmen to prevent whistle-blowing; a newspaper expose and congressional investigation of the scandal led to the formal censure of two congressmen and the revelation that the vice president had accepted payments from this company
panic of 1873
-a worldwide depression that began in the UNited States when one of the nation's largest banks abruptly declared bankruptcy, leading to the collapse of thousands of banks and businesses. It intensified debtor's calls for inflationary measures such as the printing of more paper money and the unlimited coinage of silver. lasted 4 years
-Secretary of State William Seward's negotiation of the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867 for about $7 million -- about 2 cents per acre . At the time everyone thought this was a mistake to buy Alaska the "ice box" but it turned out to be the biggest bargain since the Louisiana purchase. They later realized Alaska was really useful for resources like fish, furs, and lumber.
ku klux klan
Founded in tenesse 1866, the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) extended into almost every southern state by 1870 and became a vehicle for white southern resistance to the Republican Party's Reconstruction-era policies aimed at establishing political and economic equality for blacks. Its members waged an underground campaign of intimidation and violence directed at white and black Republican leaders.
A social application of Charles Darwin's biological theory of evolution by natural selection, this late-nineteenth century theory encouraged the notion of human competitio and opposed intervention in the natural human order. Social Darwinists justified the increasing inequality of late-nineteeth-century industrial American society as natural.
compromise of 1877
... agreement that ended the disputed election of 1876 between Rutherford Hayes and Samuel Tilden; under its terms, the South accepted Hayes's election. In return, the North agreed to remove the last troops from the South, support southern railroads, and accept a southerner into the Cabinet. The Compromise of 1877 is generally considered to mark the end of Reconstruction.
A normal and industrial school led by Booker T. Washington in Tuskegee, Alabama. It focused on training young black students in agriculture and the trades to help them achieve economic independence. Washington justified segregated, vocational training as a necessary first step on the road to racial equality, although critics accused him of being too "accomodationist".
plessy v ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
ida b. wells
the lynching of blacks outraged her, an african american journalist. in her newspaper, free speech, wells urged african americans to protest the lynchings. she called for a boycott of segregated street cars and white owned stores. she spoke out despite threats to her life.
A way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply by blasting hot air through melted iron to quickly remove impurities. Carnegie perfected it, were able to make steel under a single roof, This made skyscrapers possible, advances in shipbuilding, construction, etc.
Also known as "Scientific Managment", named after its leading theoretician, Frederick Winslow Taylor. He argued that scientific managment was also a way to increase the employers control of the workplace. He urged employers to subdivided tasks, to speed up production, and decrease being dependent on a specific worker.
Standard Oil was a predominant integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. Established in 1870, it operated as a major company trust and was one of the world's first and largest multinational corporations until it was dissolved by the United States Supreme Court in 1911; John D. Rockefeller
1863-1947. American businessman, founder of Ford Motor Company, father of modern assembly lines, and inventor credited with 161 patents., created the 8 hour work day, and raised wages to 5$/day. Made his cars affordable for almost every family at the time
"Gospel of Wealth"; steel tycoon; vertical integration; Carnegie Steel Co.; philanthropist, Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. . Was one of the "Robber barons" bought out his competition along with steel creation process companies.
A technique used by John D. Rockefeller. Horizontal integration is an act of joining or consolidating with ones competitors to create a monopoly. Rockefeller was excellent with using this technique to monopolize certain markets. It is responsible for the majority of his wealth.
(435) Company took over all different businesses on which it relied for its primary function (Carnegie Steel came to control not only steel mills but mines, railroads, etc)
john d. rockefeller
An American industrialist and philanthropist, in 1870, Rockefeller founded the Standard Oil Company and ran it until he retired in the late 1890s. Often forced rival companies to sell out by drastically lowering his own prices. At one point he controlled 90% of the oil business. He became the world's richest man and first U.S. dollar billionaire.
A corporate organization in which stockholders allow a small group of trustees to control the company in exchange for trust certificates
An economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.
1723- 1790; Scottish; "Wealth of Nations"; first economist; "laissez-faire capitalism"; not completely against govt regulation; pro free trade; let individuals pursue own interest; prices should be fluctuated on just supply & demand- not what gov't say it is; not hard-core conservative (gov't does have part); skilled workforce and strong infrastructure determines power of country
Economic liberalism that believes in unrestricted private enterprise and no government interference in the economy.
A secret Irish organization of coal miners in regions of western Pennsylvania and West Virgina in the mid to late 1800's. The miners worked together to achieve better working conditions, and when demands weren't met, they protested by destroying mining equipment and other activities. They were eventually brought down by a Pinkerton detective, and some alleged members had trials and were hanged. ruined reputation of unions
knights of labor
Founded in 1869 led by Uriah S. Stephens,demanding an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories. 8 hout work day.failed after Haymarket Riot, 1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed
american federation of labor
1886; founded by Samuel Gompers; sought better wages, hrs, working conditions; skilled laborers, arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor, rejected socialist and communist ideas, non-violent., (AFL) was the first successful trade union that succeeded in bringing acceptance to unions because its members were skilled and were willing to avoid strikes through "collective bargaining" . more of a craft association.
On May 4, 1886 in the Chicago Haymarket square to protest the slayings of two workers during a strike turned into a violent riot after bomb explosion killed 7 policemen. This resulted in public condemnation of organized labor = weakening of the National of the national labor movement
It was one of the most violent strikes in U.S. history. It was against the Homestead Steel Works, which was part of the Carnegie Steel Company, in Pennsylvania in retaliation against wage cuts. The riot was ultimately put down by Pinkerton Police and the state militia, and the violence further damaged the image of unions.
(GC) 1894, , first national strike. Strike of 1894. Eugene V. Debs organized the American Railway Union (150000 members). Maintained a company town, and when the Depression hit, wages were cut one third, but the rent and living expenses remained the same. Strikers paralyzed railway traffic from Chicago to Pacific Coast. Eventually, bayonet militia came in from Washington from Cleveland himself. they only came because it was interfering with the postal service.
eugene v. debs
Labor leader and socialist who was a tireless spokesman for labor radicalism; founded the American Railway Union and was caught up in the Pullman Strike of 1894 and sentenced to six months in jail as a result; organized the Social Democratic party in 1897 and ran for President in 1900, 1904 and 1912.
Between 1860-1890 new immigrants mostly from S and E Europe. Lacked edu or/& cash which made them take unskilled jobs. Foreigners adjusted through ethnic communities. They helped them transition and advance economically but could hold them back socially.
Fear of foreigners. Huge wave of immigrants frightened Americans. Tried to stop immigration of people,ideas,& culture. Led to groups like American immigration resistance. Also led to things like the Chinese exclusion act and taxes for being a foreigner.
Political institution. Power vacuum of growth of cities created it. Product of potential voting power of large immigrant communities. Politicians could become powerful by harnessing this power.
Foreign urban bosses by Birth or parentage. Many were Irish because no language gap and had previous political experience. Function was to get votes for their org and win loyalty. Provided some relief: bag of coal, groceries, bail, jobs,etc. helped smugglers and people find their way.
William M Tweed
Most famous and corrupt city boss of nyc's Tammany hall 1860-1870. Went to jail 1872. Mid class critics saw corrupt machines as an obstacle to progress. Political orgs were supposed to modernize infrastructure, expand govt, create stability socially and politically with a center. They achieved more than what reformers did.
half-breeds and stalwarts
the stalwarts led by roscoe conkling of NY. halfbreeds led by james blaine of maine. competed for control of republican party and threatened to split it. stalwarts wanted traditional professional politics while halfbreeds wanted reform. both wanted larger share of patronage. overshadowed everything in hayes presidency.
pendleton civil service act
first national civil service measure. required that some federal jobs be filled by competitive written examinations rather than patronage. expanded so far that most 20th century fed jobs required it.
a group of liberal republicans. snnounced they would support democratic candidate and leave the republican party. led to the presidency of Cleaveland
1867 by oliver h kelly their main goals was to enhance the lives of isolated farmer through social and fraternal activities self improvement <they put pressure on mid western legislatures to regulate railroad monolopies>. first major farm organization.
A Farmers' organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy. created the peoples party.
the idea of permitting silver to become currency so they could expand money supply. supported by populists first. Movement supporting the unlimited coinage of silver. Some believed it would help cause inflations allowing farmers to pay off debt. others said no cuz other nations used the gold-backed system.
omaha platform 1892
The Populists met here in Nebraska to create a platform that would appeal to farmers throughout the nation. The platform stressed inflation, $50 per person in circulating currency, a postal savings bank, and a graduated income tax. The Populists also wanted government ownership and operation of railroads, communications, and utilities. They advocated the direct election of senators, a one term limit for presidents; tariff reductions; restriction of immigration; an eight-hour work day; and implementation of an Australian ballot, an initiative, and referendum.
panic of 1893
1893; Philadelphia and Reading Railroad went bankrupt, followed by others; government gold supply wore thin; people traded their money for gold; spread to Wall Street where stocks fell; silver plunged. unemployment highest ever.
sherman silver purchase act 1890
(BH) 1890 , In 1890, an act was passed so that the treasury would by 4.5 million ounces of silver monthly and pay those who mined it in notes that were redeemable in either gold or silver. This law doubled the amount of silver that could be purchased under the Bland-Allison Law of 1878. believed to be the cause of weakining gold and was repealed.
formed by farmers, wanted a reduced tariff, a graduated income tax, government control of the railroads telephones and telegraphs, extension of the money supply (free silver), included Blacks (which hurt them)
to protect industrialists from foreign competition this raised tariffs to an all time high peacetime rates
A series of laws passed in several midwestern states in the late 1860s and early 1870s. The main goal was to regulate rising fare prices of railroad and grain elevator companies.
william jennings bryan
delivered cross of gold speech. nominated for president. supported free silver. , Democratic candidate for president in 1896 under the banner of "free silver coinage" which won him support of the Populist Party.
cross of gold speech
A speech given by William Jennings Bryan that advocated the use of silver coins, convinced the Democrats to elect him as their presidential candidate in the 1896 election
gold standard act
Signed by McKinley in 1900 and stated that all paper money must be backed only by gold. This meant that the government had to hold large gold reserves in case people wanted to trade in their money. Also eliminated silver coins in circulation.set a value of gold to the dollar.