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Bio Chapter 13
Terms in this set (40)
How does RNA differ from DNA?
Sugar=ribose, single-stranded, base is uracil
Which nucleic acid carries information from DNA to other parts of the cell?
Which nucleic acid forms an important part of both subunits of ribosome?
Which nucleic acid carries amino acids to the ribosome and matches them to the coded mRNA message?
In ___________________, segments of DNA serve as templates to produce complementary RNA molecules
_______________: enzyme that links together the growing chain of RNA nucleotides during transcription using a DNA strand as a template
________________ are signals in the DNA molecule that show RNA polymerase exactly where to begin making RNA.
"First draft" of final mRNA that requires "editing"
Portions of pre-mRNA that are cut out and discarded
Remaining pieces of pre-mRNA that are spliced back together to form final mRNA.
Proteins are made by joining amino acids together into long chains called __________________
The ____________ is read three "letters" at a time, so that each "word" is three bases long and corresponds to a single amino acid.
Each three-letter "word" in mRNA is known as a ____________ and consists of three consecutive bases that specify a single amino acid to be added to the polypeptide chain.
the methionine codon AUG serves as the initiation, or _________ codon for protein synthesis
mRNA is read, three bases at a time, until it reaches one of three different __________ codons, which end translation.
________________ use the sequence of codons in mRNA to assemble amino acids into polypeptide chains.
The decoding of an mRNA message into a protein is a process known as ___________.
Each tRNA molecule carries just one kind of amino acid. In addition, each tRNA molecule has three unpaired bases, collectively called ____________. Each of them is complementary to one mRNA codon.
The central dogma of molecular biology is that _________________ from DNA to RNA to protein.
information is transferred
__________________: the way in which DNA, RNA, and proteins are involved in putting genetic information into action in living cells.
______________ are heritable changes in genetic information.
The two types of mutation are:
gene mutations and chromosomal mutations
Gene mutations that involve changes in one or a few nucleotides are known as _______________ because they occur at a single point in the DNA sequence.
There are three types of point mutations are:
substitutions, insertions, and deletions
__________________ - one base changed to a different base.
____________ and ____________ - one base is inserted or deleted from the DNA sequence.
Insertions and deletions are also called ____________ because they shift the "reading frame" of the genetic message.
Some mutations arise from ____________, chemical or physical agents in the environment.
There are four types of chromosomal mutations. They are:
deletion, duplication, inversion, and translocation
________________ involve changes in number or structure of chromosomes.
The condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes is called _______________.
An ________________ is a group of genes that are regulated together.
The _____________ is where a DNA-binding protein known as the lac repressor can bind to DNA.
By binding DNA sequences in the regulatory regions of eukaryotic genes, ______________ control the expression of those genes.
Blocking gene expression by means of an miRNA silencing complex is known as _______________
Gene regulation helps cells undergo _______________, becoming specialized in structure and function.
__________________ are like switches that trigger particular patterns of development and differentiation in cells and tissues.
Master control genes
A set of master control genes, known as __________, regulates organs that develop in specific parts of the body.
_________________ code for transcription factors that activate other genes that are important in cell development and differentiation.
In files, a group of homeobox genes known as ____________ are located side by side in a single cluster. They determine the identities of each segment of a fly's body.
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