198 terms

Ap Human Geography Ch 10: Agriculture


Terms in this set (...)

deliberate modification of Earth's surface through cultivation of plants and rearing of animals to obtain sustenance or economic gain
any plant cultivated by people
Subsistence Agriculture
found in LDCs, is the production of food primarily for consumption by the farmer's family
Commercial Agriculture
found in MDCs, production of food primarily for sale off the farm.
system of commercial farming found in the United States and other MDCs
double cropping
process of obtaining two harvests per year from one field
crop rotation
the practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year to avoid exhausting the soil
Plantation Agriculture
a large farm that specializes in one or two crops
the ring surrounding a city from which milk can be supplied without spoiling
the growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers
Truck Farm
grow many of the fruits and vegetables that consumers in more developed societies demand, such as apples, asparagus, cherries, lettuce, mushrooms, and tomatoes
Sustainable Agriculture
agricultural practice that preserves and enhances environmental quality
Ridge Tillage
a system of planting crops on ridge tops
when human actions cause land to deteriorate to a desertlike condition
Green Revolution
The invention and rapid diffusion of more productive agricultural techniques during the 1970s and 1980s
the spreading of a feature or trend from one place to another over time
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
a form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expand a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land
Pastoral Nomadism
A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals
The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures
Around _____ to _____ _____ years ago, humans began to domesticate plants and animals for food.
ten to twelve thousand
Before this first agricultural revolution, people relied on _____ to obtain food supples.
hunting and gathering
Before the first agricultural revolution, people lived in _____ groups (usually fewer than _____ people)
small groups, fewer than 50 people
Before the first agricultural revolution, what was the division of labor and why?
men-hunted game or fished, women-collected berries, nuts, and roots, because women needed to stay close to home to care of the children
Before the first agricultural revolution, people moved _____
Today there are only about a _____ people (less than .005% of the world's population) still _____
quarter million people, still decreasing
The people that still hunt and gather their food live in _____ areas including the ____ and the ____ of _____, _____, and _____ (examples include the _____ of _____ and _____ and the _____ in _____)
isolated, Arctic, interior of Africa, Australia, and South America, African Bushmen of Namibia and Botswana, Aborigines in Australia
The beginnings of the agriculture did not occur in _____ place but appeared almost _____ around the _____.
one, simultaneously around the world
Agriculture began possibly through _____ and _____ with different _____ and _______ or by _____.
trial and error, plants and animals, long term experimentation
1st Ag Rev: What are the two types of cultivation?
Vegetative planning-direct cloning of existing plants (cutting stems and dividing roots), Seed agriculture-reproduction of plants through annual planting of seeds
1st Ag Rev: What are the two locations of the agricultural hearths of the types of cultivations?
Vegetative planning-Southeast Asia, West Africa and northwest South America, Seed agriculture-western India, northern China, Ethiopia, Southwest Asia (where weat and barley were domesticated) (first to integrate seed agriculture with domestication of herd animals such as cattle, sheep and goats)
Between the 1st Ag Revolution thousands of years ago and the 17th century, ag _____.
remained pretty much the same
In the 17th century, a 2nd ag revolution took place that increased _____, _____ as well as _____ which allowed more people to move to the cities as the industrial revolution got under way.
efficiency, production as well as industrialization
During the 2nd ag rev tools and equipment were _____
During the 2nd ag rev methods of _____, _____ _____ and _____ began to improve
soil preparation, fertilization, crop care and harvesting
During the 2nd ag rev the general organization of _____, _____ and _____ was made efficient
agriculture, food storage, and distribution
During the 2nd rev productivity
began to increase with rising demands
What is the Green Revolution?
1970s-1980s--invention and rapid diffusion of more productive agricultural techniques
During the Green Revolution introduction of a _____ seed and plant (_____ and _____)
higher yield seed (wheat and rice)
During the Green Revolution a "_____ wheat _____"
miracle wheat seed
more recently they have developed a new _____
high yield corn plant
The Green Revolution expanded the use of _____
fertilizers and machines
What are some problems that occurred because of the Green Revolution?
LDC's farmers cannot afford such equipment and higher fuel costs, and they must find funds to subsidize the cost of seeds, fertilizers and machinery
The Green Revolution was successful where?
Parts of Asia and Latin America
The Green Revolution did not have an impact on _____ and it was not widely successful in _____
on MDCs, Africa because they can't afford it
When was the 3rd Agricultural Revolution?
still in progress
3rd Ag Rev: Based on high-yielding strains of grains and crops developed in laboratories using modern techniques of _____
genetic engineering
3rd Ag Rev: Genetic altering of plants are producing crops that are _____, have _____, are _____
less perishable, shelf life, transport
Many of the countries which were once colonies of Europe, especially those in Central America, are still heavily involved in what?
the same types of agricultural production as they were hundreds of years ago.
Farming in the twentieth century has become _______ with geographical technologies like _____ while LDCs ______
highly technological in MDCs, GIS, GPS, and remote sensing, continue with practices which are similar to those developed after the first ag revolution, thousands of years ago
About _____ of the world's population makes their living through ag
The proportion of the population involved in ag ranges from about _____ in the US to about _____ in some parts of _____
2%, 80%, Asia and Africa
There are two types of ag _____ and _____
subsistence and commercial
Subsistence farmers
produce enough to feed their families for the year
Many subsistence farmers use the _____ or _____ ag method (ladang, milpa, chena, and kaingin)
slash and burn, swidden
The Slash and Burn/Swidden technique used by _____ people (approximately _____ of the world's population), is especially prevalent in _____. Primarily in ______
150-200 million people, 5%, Africa, Latin America, and Southeast Asia, LDCs
Slash and Burn/Swidden technique occupies approximately _____ of the world's land area-- a _____% than any other type of ag
1/4, 25%, higher %
What is the Slash and Burn/Swidden technique?
a portion of land is cleared and burned to provide at least one and up to 3 years of good crops for that portion of land, once land can no longer be utilized, a new patch of ground is slashed and burnt for another round of crops, not neat or well-organized but effective for farmers that don't know about irrigation, soil, and fertilization, many different crops, vary by local custom and taste
What climates is subsistence farming practiced in?
humid low-latitude, high temp, a lot of rain, rainforests in South America, Central and West Africa, and Southeast Asia
What are Crops of shifting cultivation and their origins?
upland rice in Southeast Asia, Corn and Cassava in South America, Millet and Sorghum in Africa
How do the Kayapo in Brazil's Amazon plant crops?
plant in rings sweet potatoes and yams in the inside, then corn, rice, cassava and yams, Outside require more nutrients papaya, banana, pineapple, mango, cotton, and beans
What percent of people engage in Subsistence Farming?
Subsistence farming is declining by about ______ a year-replaced by _____
1%, logging, cattle ranching, and cultivation of cash crops
Bolivia set aside _____ in forest reserves for _____ to developed countries
3.7 million acres, 650 million debt
Brazil's Amazon is declining by _____ per year
8 million acres
Traditionally, subsistence farming land is owned by _____
the villages as a whole, but sometimes each family is allocated a patch of land
Today, there is some private ownership of land especially in _____
latin america
Commercial Ag
sell a product at market
Commercial ag takes place _____ and includes major ______ in Central America as well as _____ in the Midwestern US.Primarily in _____
all over world, agribusiness-plantations-fruit plantations, huge agribusiness and wheat farming, MDCs
Geographers commonly identify what two major belts of crops in the US
wheat belt-crossing the Dakotas, Nebraska, Kansas, and Oklahoma, corn belt-grown to feed livestock, reaches from southern Minnesota, across Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio.
What are the five principal features that distinguish commercial ag from subsistence ag?
purpose of farming, percentage of farms in labor force, use of machinery, farm size, relationship of farming to other businesses
What is difference between the purposes of farming that distinguish commercial ag from subsistence ag?
SA-produce enough for own family, if a surplus happens they may sell it but that is not their main purpose, CA-grow crops and raise animals primarily for sale, off of farm to food processing companies
What is difference between the percentage of farms in the labor force that distinguish commercial ag from subsistence ag?
LDCs-55% or more, MDCs-less than 5%
What is difference between the use of machinery that distinguish commercial ag from subsistence ag?
SA-rely on people (hand tools and animals), CA-rely on machine for farming [tractors, combines, corn, pickers, planters, etc.] and for transportation, cattle arrive in better condition, 1900s-highways and railroads, 1800s-railroads, 1770s-first all iron plow
What is difference between the farm size that distinguish commercial ag from subsistence ag?
SA-small family/village owned-usually only large enough to support family/village, CA-relatively large because of mechanization
What is difference between the relationship of farming to other businesses that distinguish commercial ag from subsistence ag?
SA-usually isolated activity, CA-very connected, technology, business, transportation, etc.
Today in the US _____of labor works in food production related to agribusiness-_____
20%, tractor manufacturing, seed distribution, food processing, storing, retailing, fertilizer
Pastoral Nomadism: usually in _____climates where planting crops is _____, _____ and parts of _____ (ex. _____)
dry, impossible, North Africa, Sahara, Middle East Asia, Bedouins in Saudi Arabia and Masai in East Africa
Pastoral Nomadism: _____ people are pastoral nomads on about _____% of the total land area of Earth
15 million, 20%
Pastoral Nomadism: Depend _____-_____, but rarely _____
on animals for survival-milk, skin and hair (clothing and tents), consume the meat
Pastoral Nomadism: part of a nomadic group (women and children perhaps) will _____
settle in on area permanently while the men go out and hunt
Pastoral Nomadism: May _____, or they may _____ and _____
hire others to grow crops for them, plant grains, come back to it
Type of animal depends on _____
local cultural and physical characteristics
Pastoral Nomadism: list some animals and their origins
camel in North Africa and the Middle East followed by sheep and goats, horse in Central Asia
Pastoral Nomadism: Have strong sense of _____, size of area and herd depends on _____ and _____, need _____ to survive
territoriality, wealth and power of group, large enough area
Why is pastoral nomadism declining?
partly victim of modern technology when leading nomadic life no political boundaries, go wherever, some herding groups restricted-governments want the land for other uses and try to force groups to give up pastoral nomadism, more profitable, choices
Intensive Subsistence Ag: _____ of the world's population lives in _____ and must feed them
3/4, LDCs
Intensive Subsistence Ag: farmers must _____ to survive (parcels grow _____ as the population increases)
produce more food, smaller
Intensive Subsistence Ag:where?
East, South, and Southeast Asia
Intensive Subsistence Ag: Ratio of farmers to arable land is _____
Intensive Subsistence Ag: To maximize food production-______
no land is wasted
Intensive Subsistence Ag: Livestock is _____
very rarely permitted
Intensive Subsistence Ag-Wet Rice Dominant: plant rice on dry land in a _____ and then move the seedlings to _____ to promote growth
nursery, flooded fields
Intensive Subsistence Ag-Wet Rice Dominant: where?
SE China, East India, and SE Asia
Intensive Subsistence Ag-Wet Rice Dominant: planted _____
mostly by hand
Intensive Subsistence Ag-Wet Rice Dominant: In flooded fields called a _____-_____
sawah-we call it a paddy-but correct a paddy is really a Malay word for wet rice
Intensive Subsistence Ag-Wet Rice Dominant: Often _____-_____
double cropping-have two harvests in one year from one field
Intensive Subsistence Ag-Wet Rice Not Dominant: where?
interior India and northern China
Intensive Subsistence Ag-Wet Rice Not Dominant: _____ most important than _____
wheat, barley
Intensive Subsistence Ag-Wet Rice Not Dominant: other crops include-_____, crops for cash-_____
millet, oats, corn, kaoliang, sorghum, and soybeans-cotton, flax, hemp, and tobacco
Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming: where?
most common in the US West of Appalachians and in much of Europe: Portugal, Spain, Russia-North European Plain
Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming: Integrates _____
crops and livestock
Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming: Most of the crops are fed _____ rather than being _____
to animals, consumed directly by humans
Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming: In turn animals provide _____
manure to improve soil quality
Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming: A typical mixed commercial farm devotes _____ to _____ but derives more than _____ of its income from the sale of animal products (_____)
nearly all land, crops, 1/4, beef, milk, eggs, etc.
Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming: Balance out the _____ and reduces the _____
work load, seasonal variation of income
Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming: Soil _____ is usually very important-including _____
conservation, crop rotation
Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming: _____ is grown in the US by most mixed farmers, some is _____ (_____), most is _____
corn, consumed by people directly (corn, oil, margarine, etc.), fed to pigs and cattle
Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming: _____ are the second most important crop in the US
soy beans
Dairy Farming: where?
large urban areas of NE US, SE Canada and NW Europe
Dairy Farming: _____ of total ag output in _____
20%, NA and Western Europe, Russia, Australia and New Zealand
Dairy Farming: These areas produce nearly _____
60% of the world's supply of milk
Dairy Farming: Located _____ because of transportation factors and perishability
in the first rings outside large cities
Dairy Farming: Improved technology has ______
increased the distance-transportation, refrigeration, pasteurization
Dairy Farming: _____ can also be done further from the market. _____ (_____)
butter and cheese production, dried and evaporated and condensed milk (Wisconsin to NE US, New Zealand to UK)
Dairy Farming: Problems?
very labor intensive-milk twice a day, everyday, feed cost is increasing
Grain Farming: Crops?
wheat, corn, oats, barley, millet, rice
Grain Farming: Grown mainly for _____ consumption rather than _____ such as on mixed farms
human, animal consumption
Grain Farming: Commercial grain farmers sell their crops to _____, like breakfast cereals and snack food makers
manufacturers of food products
Grain Farming: _____ is the most important-most used to make _____, why?
wheat, bread flour, higher profit, stores easy without spoiling, transported a longer distance
Grain Farming: Regions?
US-largest wheat producer (winter wheat-Kansas, Colorado, Oklahoma, Summer wheat-Dakotas, Montana, Saskatchewan in Canada, Palouse region in Washington State), Few other countries-Argentina (Pompas), South Australia, Central Asia (stans), black sea pakistan to Khakistan, France and UK (Not as much anymore), drier than mixed crop and livestock ag areas
Grain Farming: _____ and oriented to _____
highly mechanized, large farms, order to consumer preferences
Grain Farming: Wheat is _____-_____ account for _____ of the world's exports
world's leading export-US and Canada, 1/2
Livestock Ranching: Ranching is the _____
commercial grazing of livestock area, Western Area
Livestock Ranching: adapted to _____ lands in _____
semiarid, MDC's
Livestock Ranching: _____ today in US is on _____
60%, government leased land
Livestock Ranching: Cattle are still raised on _____ but are frequently sent to _____ for fattening near _____
ranches, feedlots, major railroad and highway routes
Livestock Ranching: Ranches are _____-many owned by _____ rather than _____ today
large, meat processing companies, individuals
Livestock Ranching: Regions?
rare in Europe except in Spain and Portugal, South America-Pampas of grassland all around there in Argentina, Brazil, Interior of Australia (mainly sheep), Interior of South Africa (mainly sheep)
Mediterranean Ag: Regions?
primarily around the Mediterranean Sea, Southern California, Chile, Southwest part of South Africa, Southern Australia
Mediterranean Ag: Conditions?
salt waters, primarily West Coast (exception the Mediterranean Sea), prevailing winds provide moisture (windward side of mtn), moderate winters temperature, summers are little hotter and drier, land is hilly, cool all year with rain
Mediterranean Ag: Horticulture
most of the world's olives, grapes, fruits, and veggies (Peru, Chile), variety of crops within the farming area
Mediterranean Ag: in the Mediterranean Sea countries-two most important cash crops?
olives and grapes -2/3 wine produced in Italy, France and Spain, other 1/3 in Mediterranean Ag Regions around the world, some countries in the Middle East will not produce wine because of religion
Mediterranean Ag: Half of the land is devoted to growing _____ (wheat for _____) except in _____
cereals, pasta and bread, California
Mediterranean Ag: In California land is devoted to _____
vegetables and fruits
Commercial Gardening and fruit farming: Predominant in the _____
Southeast US-Plains Tx to New Jersey, long growing season, humid climate
Commercial Gardening and fruit farming: truck farming
today food processing was selling on side of road
Commercial Gardening and fruit farming: Fruits and Vegetables?
apples, asparagus, cherries, lettuce, mushrooms and tomatoes
Commercial Gardening and fruit farming: Sold _____ and to ______
fresh to consumers, large processors for canning and freezing, highly efficient large scale operations
Commercial Gardening and fruit farming: rely on _____ travel with the _____
migrant workers (live near Southern Part), harvest, highly intensive with low pay, Mediterranean US relies on migrant workers
Plantation Ag: where?
tropics and subtropics especially in LDCs (Latin America, Africa, and Asia)
Plantation Ag: often owned or operated by _____
people outside region where plantation is located
Plantation Ag: Grow crops for sale in _____
MDCs (bananas, sugar cane)
Plantation Ag: Plantation
large farm specializing in 1 or 2 crops such as cotton, rubber, tobacco, cocao, jute, bananas, tea, coconuts, and palm oil
Plantation Ag: workers are often _____, crops are normally _____
imported, processed at plantation before shipping because its easier to transport than fresh fruit
What are economic issues for subsistence farmers?
increasing populations in LDCs-stronger demand for food, land is left fallow for the land to be fertile, new farming techniques increase productivity/demands income, switching to growing crops for export-less food for local consumption-causing problems, often the export crop is drugs (Peru, Afghanistan)
What are economic issues for commercial farmers?
JH Von Thunen developed a model in 1826 for the ag use of land-theory: more perishable and heavier products would be grown closer to urban areas, perishable vegetables and fruits to be grown within metropolitan areas while less-perishable gain is predominantly produced in non-metropolitan
Where were various plants and animals domesticated?
barley and wheat, lentil and olive-Southwest Asia(10,000 yrs), rice-East Asia (10,000 yrs), Millet-Yellow River, Sorghum-central Africa(8,000 yrs), Millet and rice may have been domesticated in sub-Saharan Africa from hearth in East Asia, cotton and beans-Mexico (4,000-5,000 yrs), potato-Peru (4,000-5,000 yrs), Squashes-eastern US and Mexico, corn in both hearths at same time, cattle, goats, pigs and sheep-Southwest Asia (8,000-9,000), dog-Southwest Asia (12,000), horse-Central Asia
What role did fire and metallurgy play in hunting and gathering societies and in early agricultural communities?
The slash-and-burn technique required metallurgy for cutting down trees and overgrowth, and fire to burn the trees and overgrowth and make the ground fertile
What assumptions did Von Thunen make?
city is located centrally within an "Isolated State" which is self sufficient and has no external influences, state is surrounded by an unoccupied wilderness, land is flat and has no rivers or mtns to interrupt the terrain, soil quality and climate are consistent throughout, farmers transport goods to market via oxcart, across land, directly to the central city, no roads, farmers act to maximize profits
What are the main factors that influence where crops (livestock) are produced as the most cost-effective across the landscape?
how long it takes a crop to spoil, how hard it is to transport, cost of transportation, land, and profit
Describe the basic geographic principles of Van Thunen's model
0-2 miles out of the city is intensive farming/dairying, 2-4 miles is forest, 4-6 miles is extensive field crops, 6-8 miles out is ranching/animal products
How would topographic features, modern forms of transportation, and climatic and soil variations alter the distribution of ag practices?
They could influence the shape of the rings, the amount of time it takes to get to market, what crops can be planted there, and what means of transportation you must use
Apply von Thunen's model to the US and Europe and describe where the single market would be located, and the geographic distribution of the five major rings
Europe-Germany, Poland, UK (center), North Europe (1st), France to West Russia (2nd), Southeast Europe to Kazakhastan (3rd), Kazakhastan and Iran area (4th), Turkey and Southwest Europe (5th), US-New York (center), Northeast US (1st), Centraleast US (2nd), Central and Northcentral US (3rd), Plains area (4th), Southwest California (5th)
Dispersed settlements
settlements far apart
Nucleated settlements
settlement concentrated
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
Organisms whose genetic material has been modified for increased agricultural output
Organic Agriculture
approach to farming and ranching that avoids the use of herbicides, pesticides, growth hormones, and other similar synthetic inputs.
Primary Economic Activity
Any economic activity pertaining to the collecting, harvesting, and obtaining of raw materials
Quaternary Economic Activity
Any economic activity pertaining to the collection, processing, and manipuation of information, capital, and culture - finance, government, insurance, legal services, etc.
Tertiary Economic Activity
Any economic activity pertaining to the provision of services - transportation, banking, retailing, education, etc.
Adaptive Strategies
A group's system of economic production, depends on the relationship between environment and technology. In non-industrial societies, it will usually be based on food production.
Rural/farm lifestyle
Collective Farm
government-owned farms and employed large numbers of workers; all crops distributed by the government, as in a communist state
Primary Economic Activity
economic activity concerned with the direct extraction of natural resources from the environment-- such as mining, fishing, lumbering, and especially agriculture
Quinary Economic Activity
service sector industries that require a high level of specialized knowledge skill (scientific research, high-level management)
Carl Sauer
Geographer from the University of California at Bed defined the concept of cultural landscape as the fundamental un graphical analysis. This landscape results from interaction betwee and the physical environment. Sauer argued that virtually no land escaped alteration by human activities.
the raising of plants or animals, such as fish or shellfish, in or at the bottom of the sea, a lake, a river, or other body of water
genetic engineering of plants adn animals with the potential to greatly exceed the productivity improvements of the Green Revolution
any technique that uses living organisms to improve or modify plants and animals or to develop microorganisms for specific use
food chain
composed of five central adn connected sectors with four contextual elemnts acting as external mediationg forces
globalized ag
as both an economic sector and a geographically distibuted activity, modern ag is increasingly dependent on on an eonomy and set of regulatory practices that are global in scope and organization
the practice of mixing different seeds and seedlings in the same swidden.
extensive commercial ag
shifting cultivation, nomadic herding/pastorilism
Growing season
the season in which crops grow best. Growing seasons can vary by location, societies rely on their growing season to which crops they can or can't grow at their latitude.
Staple grains
Maize (corn), wheat, and rice are the most produced grains produced world wide, accounting for 87% of all grains and 43% of all food. Maize staple food of North America, South American, Africa, and livestock worldwide, wheat is primary in temperate regions, and rice in tropical regions.
Market gardening
The small scale production of fruits, vegetables, and flowers as cash crops sold directly to local consumers. Distinguishable by the large diversity of crops grown on a small area of land, during a single growing season. Labor is done manually.
Commodity chains
(e.g. agribusiness) a sequential process used by firms to gather resources, transform them into goods or commodities and, finally, distribute them to consumers.
a number of families live in close proximity to each other, with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings (e.g., Asian longhouse
characterized by farmers living on individual farms isolated from neighbors rather than alongside other farmers in the area-
Debt-for-nature swap
when agencies such as the World Bank make a deal with third world countries that they will cancel their debt if the country will set aside a certain amount of their natural resources.
producing or growing one crop over a wide area
-Long Lots (French)
houses erected on narrow lots perpendicular along a river, so that each original settler had equal river access.
-Metes and Bounds (English)
uses physical features of the local geography, along with directions and distances, to define the boundaries of a particular piece of land. Metes refers to boundary defined by a measurement of a straight run, bounds refers to a more general boundary, such as a waterway, wall, public road, or existing building.
Township-and-Range (U.S.A)
survey's used west of Ohio, after the purchase of the Louisiana Purchase. Land is divided into six-mile square blocks (township), which is then divided into one-mile square blocks (range). Ranges were then broken into smaller parcels to be sold or given to people to develop.
Village forms:
(linear, cluster, round, walled, grid pattern) (see reading guide)
Building materials:
(wood, brick, stone, wattle, grass & brush) houses and buildings are typically built from materials that are abundant in the area.
Ester Boserup
Geographer who developed the theory that subsistence farmers want the most leisure time they can have, so they farm in ways that will allow them both to feed their families and to maximize free time. Boserup's theory also posited that farmers will change their approach to farming if the population increases and more food is needed, thus making the food supply dependent on human innovation, rather than humans dependent on the food supply.
Soil erosion
Loss of the nutrient-rich top layer in soil.
Extractive industry
Industry that involves mining, such as to obtain copper or other valuable minerals found in the.
Farm crisis
is a term describing times of agricultural recession,low crop prices and low farm incomes that can lead to farm bankruptcy
is the art and science of managing forests, tree plantations, and related natural resources
Mineral fuels
A carbonaceous fuel mined or stripped from the earth, such as petroleum, coal, peat, shale oil
is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an ore body
Planned economy
is an economic system in which the state directs the economy
resources that can regenerate as they are exploited/resources that can not be regenerated
the separation of tasks within a system
Suitcase farm
commercial grain agriculture, a farm on which no one lives; planting and harvesting is done by hired migratory crews
Tragedy of the commons
a dilemma arising from the situation in which multiple individuals, acting independently and rationally consulting their own self-interest, will deplete a shared limited resource even when it is clear that it is not in anyone's interest for this to happen