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such animals do not undergo a net gain or loss of water


an organism whos body fluids have a solute concentration equal to that of its surroundings, they do not have a net gain or loss of water by osmosis


the use of energy in controlling the loss or gain of water


stored in the urinary bladder


a small and very toxic nitrogeneous waste produced by metabolism

uric acid

an insoluble precipitate of nitrogeneous waste excreted by land snails, insects, birds and some reptiles


fluid extracted by the excretory system from the blood or body cavity, the excretory system produces urine from the filtrate after extracting valuable solutes for it and concentrating it


a duct that conveys urine from the kiddney to the urinary bladder

urinary bladder

the pouch where urine is stored prior to elimination


a duct that conveys urine from the urinary bladder to the outside, in the male it also conveys semen out of the body during ejaculation

renal cortex

the outer portion of the vertebrate kidney

renal medulla

the inner portion of the vertabrate kidney, beneath the renal cortex


the tubular excretory unit and associated blood vessels of the vertabrate kidney; extracts filtrate from the blood and refines it into urine

bowmans capsule

a cup shaped swelling at the recieving end of a nephron in the vertabrate kidney; collects the filtrate from the blood

collecting duct

a tube in the vertebrate kidney tht concentrates urine while conveying it to the renal pelvis


in the vertabrate kidney, the part of a nephron consisting of the capillaries that are surrounded by bowmans capsule; together a glomerulus and bowmans capsule produce the filtrate from the blood

proximal tubule

in the vertebrate kideney, the portion of a nephron immediately downstream from bowmans capsule that conveys and helps refine filtrate

loop of henle

in the vertebrate kidney the portion of a nephron that helps concentrate the filtrate while convey

distal tube

in the vertebrate kidney, the portion of a nephron that helps refine filtrate and empties it into a collecting duct


in the vertebrate kidney, the extraction of water and small solutes, including metabolic wastes fro the blood by nephrons


in the vertabrate kidney, the reclaiming of water and valuable solutes from the filtrate


in the vertabrate kidney, the discharge of waste from the blood into the filtrate from the nephron tubules


the disposal of nitrogen containing metabolic wastes

hepatic portal vessel

a blood vessel that conveys blood from the capillaries surrounding the intestine directly to the liver

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