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What historic figure died of a disease that had symptoms consistent with West Nile encephalitis?

Alexander The Great

What transmits West Nile virus to humans?


Know some examples of pathogens

viruses, bacteria, viroids

All prokaryotic cells have ____________ and __________.

ribosomes, cell membranes

What is the term for the process by which one bacterial cell transfers DNA to another?


Small circular molecules of DNA in bacteria are called ____________.


Know some ways that bacteria can obtain their nutrition.

chemoautotrophy, photoautotrophy, heterotrophy

Bacteria reproduce asexually by ______________.

prokaryotic fission

One of the newest techniques used to identify bacteria is to determine their _________________.

nucleotide sequences

In what way does prokaryotic fission resemble mitosis?

They have genetically identical offspring.

______________ are important in both food preparation and protecting the body against pathogens.


Botulism toxin is produced by ______________.


Anthrax is caused by a _____________.

bacillus (rod shaped)

Stomach ulcers are caused by a ___________.

helicobacter pylori

Know some facts about E.coli.

1) can act as a pathogen
2) can compete with pathogens in the gut
3) normal inhabitant of the gut
4) synthesizes vitamins essential to the host

Borrelia burgdorferi is the cause of ____________.

lyme disease

Know some things that bacteria re responsive to.

1) oxygen concentration
2) light
3) chemicals
4) gravity

Know some places where methanogens have been isolated.

termite guts, deep ocean vents, marsh mud, rocks deep below the Earth's surface

Extreme halophiles only survive in environments that are extremely high in _____________.


Why do most scientists not consider viruses to be alive?

Their metabolic machinery is borrowed from a host cell.

Know some ways to characterize a virus.

1) nucleic acid core
2) noncellular organization
3) being parasitic
4) protein coat

Know some examples of conditions caused by viruses.

herpes, measles, influenza, hepatitis B

What kind of virus is an RNA virus?

goes backwards (retrovirus)

Viroids differ from viruses in that the former lack a ______________.

protein coat

Viriods are implicated in what human diseases?

hepatitis D

What is mad cow disease caused by?


A disease that is always present but usually restricted to a small part of the population is called _____________.


Know some examples of diseases that are considered pandemic.


_____________ can be decomposers, parasites, photoautotrophs and predators.


The simplest of the eukaryotes are the __________.


Trypanosomes that infect humans are transmitted by ______________.

biting insects

Paramecium is a representative of the __________.


Know some examples of alveolates.

1) cillates
2) dinoflagllates
3) apicomplexans (sporozoans)

Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning is caused by ____________.


Which algae usually caused red tide?


What causes malaria?


The parasite Plasmodium infects ____________ and ___________.

blood cells, liver cells

Sexual reproduction of the malaria parasite occurs in the __________ host.


The failure of the potato crop and the subsequent Irish famine was due mainly to a fungus belonging to what group?


Know some characteristics of diatoms.

1) two-part shells
2) photosynthetic
3) silica shells
4) perforations in the shell

Chalk deposits as seen in the White Cliffs of Dover were produced by what?


Kelp and Sargassum are examples of ________ algae.


Holdfasts, gas-filled floats and a thick leathery surface are found in species of _________ algae.


A source for alginic acid, a thickening, emulsifying agent found in ice cream, salad dressing, beer, toothpaste, cough syrup and floor polish are the ___________ algae.


The largest algae would be included in which group?


Most freshwater algae belong to which group?


Agar is produced by ________ algae.


Nori, used to wrap sushi, is derived from ______ algae.


What do amoeba use pseudopods for?

both movement and prey capture

How are slime molds classified?


Know some examples of seed plants.

cycads, ginkos, confiers, angiosperms

The first group with flowers were the ___________.


Which algae are the most probable ancestors of land plants?


Know some associations of vascular plants.

root systems, shoot systems, angiosperms, gymnosperms

Know some facts about xylem.

it transports water and minerals

Stomata are responsible for _______ escape from the leaves and _______ entry.

water, carbon dioxide

Know some major trends in terrestrial plant evolution.

1) development of vascular tissue
2) nomotile gametes
3) adaptation to environmental issues
4) fertilization by biotic vectors

Describe some trends in plant evolution

1) nonvascular to vascular
2) motile to nonmotile gametes
3) seedless to seeds
4) haploid to diploid dominance

What were the earliest land plants?


The mosses and liverworts are members of which division?


Know some examples of bryophytes.

mosses, hornworts, liverwort

What acidic, absorbent bryophyte was used for bandages in World War I?

peat moss

Know some facts about seedless vascular plants.

1) sporophytes are independent of gametes
2) sporophytes have vascular tissue
3) seeds are not produced
4) living members still exist

What feature of horsetails was useful to pioneers of the American West?

the silica in stems

What is the name given to the leaves of a fern?


What name is given to the underground stem of ferns and club mosses?


Today's coal deposits are mostly derived from _____________ and __________.

horse tails and lycophytes

What does the seed develop from?


What is the most appropriate term for a mature pollen grain?

male gametophyte

The first organisms that did not require water for reproduction were the _____________.


Know some examples of conifers.

1) pine
2) fur
3) redwood
4) cedar

Why are angiosperms more advanced than gymnosperms?

gymnosperms lack fruit

The vast majority of plant species are ____________.


Which plant group has the most species, monocots or dicots?


What is least likely to be fround in an animal-pollinated plant?

inconspicuous flowers

What is the most nutritious agriculturally important seed?


In fungi, where are the food materials digested?

outside the body

Know the major groups of fungi.

club (basidiomycete)
sac (ascomycete)

The major groups of fungi are assigned names on what basis?

their reproductive structures

Know the ways in which fungi can reproduce.

1) asexually by spores
2) budding of parent body
3) sexually by gametes

Ascomycete is another name for ________.

sac fungi

Into what fungal group do truffles fall?

sac fungi

Baking bread and making wine are dependent on __________ fungi.

sac fungi

Know some examples of sac fungi.

penicillin, truffles, saccharomyces, red bread mold

Most edible fungi are the ________ fungi.


Know some facts about mycorrhizae.

1) increase plant growth
2) symbionts
3) allow plant to absorb water
4) increase surface area for absorption of water and minerals

Know some things caused by fungi.

1) athlete's foot
2) histoplasmosis
3) black spot
4) ergotism

The chestnut blight in the U.S. is caused by __________ fungi.


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