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ruled under Pericles, Democratic Gov. was invented there, males voted on policies of Gov. and laws. Women, salves, & Non Greeks couldn't vote
no democracy, expected to be athletic, everyone expected to fight, best army, honor to die in battle
War with Persia
Greeks beat back Persians, led by Darius, then his so Xerxes, both tried to conquer Greece
Battle of Thermopylae
300 Spartans under King Leonidas held off Persian army so Greeks could prepare, Spartans were betrayed, all 300 died
Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
greatest philosophers, many people were suspicious to their questioning and free thinking
Greek gods/Mount Olympus
polytheism, gods lived on Mt. Olympus under rule of Zeus (king of all gods), human characteristics, immortal, could speak through humans
Greeks invented Theater, finest play writers were the Athenian dramatists Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and Aristophanes
The Ancient Olympics
came from everywhere to participate or watch, ever 4 years, sports such as discuss and running were honored to Zeus, winners received crowns of olive leaves, Olympic flame is still lit at Olympics to day
Alexander the Great/Size of the Empire
In 13 years, he led army out of Europe into Asia, started w/ 35000 men, ruthless generalship
founded city of Alexandria, became famous for huge libraries and its light house which became one of the 7 wonders of the world
everywhere Alexander went, his ideas went too, the ideas brought with them stayed
Romulus and Remus/Founding of Rome
ruled by Etruscan Kings, 1st
was Romulus, him and twin brother Remus raised by a she wolf, founded Rome together
Roman Republic ruled by the Senate- group of elders who elected 2 consuls each year to lead them
famous story about Hannibal, the Carthaginian general crossing the Alps on Elephants to attack Italy, but won by Rome, called Punic Wars
(100-44 B.C.E) ambitious for soul power, in attacked Gaul, brought victory, captives, and cheers.
Civil War/Mark Antony, Octavius
civil war broke out after Caesar was killed; Octavius was his great nephew who won the war over the followers of Mark Antony
Keeping the People Amused/"the mob"
religious holidays, victory parades called triumphs, or games in the arena where mock battles between gladiators were staged
Rome conquered all of Britain and Wales as far North as Hadrian's wall-to defend Northern frontier of Roman Britain
Roman gods/Latin Names
took over Greek gods and gave them Latin names, Athena- Minerva, Zeus- Jupiter, Aries- Mars
Religious tolerance/copying of religion
tolerant of new beliefs but emperor did for a long time persecute the new religion of Christianity
"Dissension from within and invasion from the North"
western half collapsed because of dissension from with and invasion from the North
General, wife Theodora, he made laws for women's rights which became the framework for many legal systems in Europe
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