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Hill or mountain top in the center of each city


temple on the acropolis, most prominent building


important meeting space where men would decide about government, marketplace

Athens/Democracy/Pericles/Voting Rights

ruled under Pericles, Democratic Gov. was invented there, males voted on policies of Gov. and laws. Women, salves, & Non Greeks couldn't vote


no democracy, expected to be athletic, everyone expected to fight, best army, honor to die in battle

War with Persia

Greeks beat back Persians, led by Darius, then his so Xerxes, both tried to conquer Greece

Battle of Marathon

vs. Persians, marathon run today in honor of that event

Battle of Thermopylae

300 Spartans under King Leonidas held off Persian army so Greeks could prepare, Spartans were betrayed, all 300 died

Peloponnesian War

Result- lasted 27 years, catastrophe for Athens, never be the same again

Meaning of "Philosophy"

comes from 2 Greek words: Love and Wisdom

Socrates, Plato, Aristotle

greatest philosophers, many people were suspicious to their questioning and free thinking

Greek gods/Mount Olympus

polytheism, gods lived on Mt. Olympus under rule of Zeus (king of all gods), human characteristics, immortal, could speak through humans

"Renaissance Man"

Greek ideal human had a healthy mind and a healthy body

Homer, Iliad

famous story- heroic tales of Homer of his story of the Trajan war

Greek Theatre

Greeks invented Theater, finest play writers were the Athenian dramatists Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and Aristophanes

The Ancient Olympics

came from everywhere to participate or watch, ever 4 years, sports such as discuss and running were honored to Zeus, winners received crowns of olive leaves, Olympic flame is still lit at Olympics to day

Alexander the Great/Size of the Empire

In 13 years, he led army out of Europe into Asia, started w/ 35000 men, ruthless generalship


founded city of Alexandria, became famous for huge libraries and its light house which became one of the 7 wonders of the world

Hellenistic Influence

everywhere Alexander went, his ideas went too, the ideas brought with them stayed

Romulus and Remus/Founding of Rome

ruled by Etruscan Kings, 1st
was Romulus, him and twin brother Remus raised by a she wolf, founded Rome together


Roman Republic ruled by the Senate- group of elders who elected 2 consuls each year to lead them

The Appian Way/Roads

earliest road, built in. so soldiers could travel

Typical Roman

peasant with a farm

Hannibal/Punic Wars

famous story about Hannibal, the Carthaginian general crossing the Alps on Elephants to attack Italy, but won by Rome, called Punic Wars

Julius Caesar

(100-44 B.C.E) ambitious for soul power, in attacked Gaul, brought victory, captives, and cheers.

"Beware the ides of March!"

said by Plotters who feared Caesar would become king

Civil War/Mark Antony, Octavius

civil war broke out after Caesar was killed; Octavius was his great nephew who won the war over the followers of Mark Antony


when Octavius became Rome's first emperor, he was known as Augustus

Size of the Roman Empire

stretched from Britain in the west to Mesopotamia in the east

"Pax Romana"/Roman Peace

accepted Roman rule because it let people farm and trade in peace

Keeping the People Amused/"the mob"

religious holidays, victory parades called triumphs, or games in the arena where mock battles between gladiators were staged


slaves trained to fight in the arena, could win freedom if they could kill enough

Circus Maximus

Roman chariot racing stadium


led a revolt of gladiators against Rome in ended by Legions, 6,000 gladiators crucified

The Roman Legion

Romans army's main fighting troops, up to 5,000 men


making conquered Britain prosperous so that its people wouldn't want to fight Rome

Hadrian's Wall/Britain

Rome conquered all of Britain and Wales as far North as Hadrian's wall-to defend Northern frontier of Roman Britain

Roman gods/Latin Names

took over Greek gods and gave them Latin names, Athena- Minerva, Zeus- Jupiter, Aries- Mars

Religious tolerance/copying of religion

tolerant of new beliefs but emperor did for a long time persecute the new religion of Christianity

The Empire Splits

Roman Empire splits

"Dissension from within and invasion from the North"

western half collapsed because of dissension from with and invasion from the North

Byzantium/ Istanbul

Eastern Capitol- founded by the Greeks


Roman Emperor who moved capital to Byzantium


Constantine renamed Byzantium to Constantinople after himself


General, wife Theodora, he made laws for women's rights which became the framework for many legal systems in Europe

Hagia Sophia

Enormous church Hagia Sophia dominated Byzantium, and paraded celebrating Christian festivals

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