46 terms


Hill or mountain top in the center of each city
temple on the acropolis, most prominent building
important meeting space where men would decide about government, marketplace
Athens/Democracy/Pericles/Voting Rights
ruled under Pericles, Democratic Gov. was invented there, males voted on policies of Gov. and laws. Women, salves, & Non Greeks couldn't vote
no democracy, expected to be athletic, everyone expected to fight, best army, honor to die in battle
War with Persia
Greeks beat back Persians, led by Darius, then his so Xerxes, both tried to conquer Greece
Battle of Marathon
vs. Persians, marathon run today in honor of that event
Battle of Thermopylae
300 Spartans under King Leonidas held off Persian army so Greeks could prepare, Spartans were betrayed, all 300 died
Peloponnesian War
Result- lasted 27 years, catastrophe for Athens, never be the same again
Meaning of "Philosophy"
comes from 2 Greek words: Love and Wisdom
Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
greatest philosophers, many people were suspicious to their questioning and free thinking
Greek gods/Mount Olympus
polytheism, gods lived on Mt. Olympus under rule of Zeus (king of all gods), human characteristics, immortal, could speak through humans
"Renaissance Man"
Greek ideal human had a healthy mind and a healthy body
Homer, Iliad
famous story- heroic tales of Homer of his story of the Trajan war
Greek Theatre
Greeks invented Theater, finest play writers were the Athenian dramatists Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and Aristophanes
The Ancient Olympics
came from everywhere to participate or watch, ever 4 years, sports such as discuss and running were honored to Zeus, winners received crowns of olive leaves, Olympic flame is still lit at Olympics to day
Alexander the Great/Size of the Empire
In 13 years, he led army out of Europe into Asia, started w/ 35000 men, ruthless generalship
founded city of Alexandria, became famous for huge libraries and its light house which became one of the 7 wonders of the world
Hellenistic Influence
everywhere Alexander went, his ideas went too, the ideas brought with them stayed
Romulus and Remus/Founding of Rome
ruled by Etruscan Kings, 1st
was Romulus, him and twin brother Remus raised by a she wolf, founded Rome together
Roman Republic ruled by the Senate- group of elders who elected 2 consuls each year to lead them
The Appian Way/Roads
earliest road, built in. so soldiers could travel
Typical Roman
peasant with a farm
Hannibal/Punic Wars
famous story about Hannibal, the Carthaginian general crossing the Alps on Elephants to attack Italy, but won by Rome, called Punic Wars
Julius Caesar
(100-44 B.C.E) ambitious for soul power, in attacked Gaul, brought victory, captives, and cheers.
"Beware the ides of March!"
said by Plotters who feared Caesar would become king
Civil War/Mark Antony, Octavius
civil war broke out after Caesar was killed; Octavius was his great nephew who won the war over the followers of Mark Antony
when Octavius became Rome's first emperor, he was known as Augustus
Size of the Roman Empire
stretched from Britain in the west to Mesopotamia in the east
"Pax Romana"/Roman Peace
accepted Roman rule because it let people farm and trade in peace
Keeping the People Amused/"the mob"
religious holidays, victory parades called triumphs, or games in the arena where mock battles between gladiators were staged
slaves trained to fight in the arena, could win freedom if they could kill enough
Circus Maximus
Roman chariot racing stadium
led a revolt of gladiators against Rome in ended by Legions, 6,000 gladiators crucified
The Roman Legion
Romans army's main fighting troops, up to 5,000 men
making conquered Britain prosperous so that its people wouldn't want to fight Rome
Hadrian's Wall/Britain
Rome conquered all of Britain and Wales as far North as Hadrian's wall-to defend Northern frontier of Roman Britain
Roman gods/Latin Names
took over Greek gods and gave them Latin names, Athena- Minerva, Zeus- Jupiter, Aries- Mars
Religious tolerance/copying of religion
tolerant of new beliefs but emperor did for a long time persecute the new religion of Christianity
The Empire Splits
Roman Empire splits
"Dissension from within and invasion from the North"
western half collapsed because of dissension from with and invasion from the North
Byzantium/ Istanbul
Eastern Capitol- founded by the Greeks
Roman Emperor who moved capital to Byzantium
Constantine renamed Byzantium to Constantinople after himself
General, wife Theodora, he made laws for women's rights which became the framework for many legal systems in Europe
Hagia Sophia
Enormous church Hagia Sophia dominated Byzantium, and paraded celebrating Christian festivals