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Chp. 24 Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
Terms in this set (65)
Where is the greatest volume of water in the body found?
Intracellular fluid (ICF)
What determines osmosis from one fluid compartment to another?
The relative concentration of solutes in each compartment
In which compartment would fluid accumulate in edema?
Tissue (interstitial) fluid
Most body water intake is from __________, whereas most body water lost is via __________.
Fluid intake is governed mainly by hypothalamic neurons called __________.
What is the function of antidiuretic hormone?
It promotes water conservation.
Water output is largely controlled by varying ___________.
Which of the following occurs when blood volume and pressure become too high?
ADH release is inhibited.
Which of the following can prolonged exposure to cold weather lead to?
Increased respiratory water loss
In response to dehydration, osmoreceptors stimulate the secretion of __________.
A hemorrhage results in which of the following?
A decrease in water volume without significantly affecting the osmolarity
Long-term inhibition of thirst is mostly associated with which of the following?
A drop in blood osmolarity
What is the principal cation of the ECF?
Where are cells with aldosterone receptors found?
Distal convoluted tubule
What is the function of aldosterone?
It increases Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion.
Hypernatremia is a plasma __________ concentration above normal.
Which of the following is not caused by hypernatremia?
A reduction in plasma volume
What is the most significant solute in determining the distribution of water among fluid compartments?
Which of the following does not stimulate aldosterone secretion?
High blood sodium concentration
Women have a tendency to retain water during part of the menstrual cycle because estrogen mimics the action of what?
What is the most abundant cation in the ICF?
What is the total body water (TBW) content of a 70 kg young male?
What is the greatest determinant of the intracellular water volume?
Which of these conditions is not a result of hyperkalemia?
The resting membrane potential is more negative.
Which of the following occurs with hypokalemia?
Cells are hyperpolarized.
Hypokalemia can result from all of the following except __________.
What is the most abundant anion in the ECF?
Chloride homeostasis is achieved mainly as a result of ____________ homeostasis.
Which of the following is not a role of calcium in the body?
It is a significant component of nucleic acids.
How is calcium concentration in the body regulated?
Which of the following accurately describes the inorganic phosphates (Pi) of the body fluids?
They form crystals with calcium in the presence of calsequestrin.
Which of the following is a result of phosphate excretion from the body?
An increase in free calcium ions in the ECF
Which of the following represents the complete chemical reaction for the bicarbonate buffer system?
CO2 + H2O PictureH2CO3 PictureHCO3- + H+
What is the normal pH of tissue fluid?
What are the major chemical buffer systems of the body?
The bicarbonate, phosphate, and protein
What protein is the most important buffer in blood plasma?
What protein is the most important buffer in erythrocytes?
Which of the following characterizes a weak base?
It binds a little H+ and has a weak effect on pH.
When the renal tubules secrete hydrogen ions into the tubular fluid, they __________ at the same time.
Which buffer system accounts for 75% of all chemical buffering in the body fluids?
The protein buffer system
The bicarbonate buffer system would not work very well in the human body if not for the action of the respiratory system, which ___________.
expels CO2 produced by the buffer system
Which of the following describes an antiport system on the basal side of renal tubule cells?
It exchanges K+ for Na+.
Proteins can buffer a drop in pH with their ___________ side groups and can buffer an increase in pH with their __________ side groups.
Acidosis has what effect on the resting membrane potential of nerve cells?
It causes hyperpolarization.
How do the kidneys compensate respiratory acidosis?
By secreting more hydrogen ions
Breathing into and out of a paper bag for a long period of time will lead to __________.
An excessive intake of antacids can lead to which of the following?
Chronic vomiting can lead to which of the following?
Emphysema can lead to which of the following?
A patient suffering from diabetic acidosis would display which of the following symptoms?
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