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48 terms

English Monarchy & English Revolution Test

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Henry VII
First tudor King, made England strong and prosperous
Mary I
devoted Catholic; tried to destroy Anglican Church, burned may people at the stake; "Bloody Mary"
Philip II
wife of Mary I
Elizabeth I
half sister of Mary I, protestad, never married/ had kids, had her closest relative, Mary Queen of Scotts killed
Mary Queen of Scotts
closest relative of Elizabeth I, was beheaded by her
James I
son of MQS, from Stuart family; liked the Anglican Church
Charles I
son of James I, made petition of right, liked Anglican Church, was eventually beheaded
Spanish Armada
fleet of ships launched by Phillip II, defeated by England
Puritans
objected Anglican Church, wanted to purify English church
Parliament
passed laws/ applied taxes
House of Lords
made of Nobles / Clergy
House of Commons
made of gentry / burgesses
Gentry
landowners
Burgesses
merchants/ professional people
Petition of Right, 1628
1- King can't tax people without parliament's permission. 2- Can't declare martial law. 3- Can't board soldiers in private areas during peacetime. 4- can't imprison a person without a specific charge.
Presbyterians
form of protestantism that was the religion of Scotland
Anglican Church
created by Henry VIII
Long Parliament
Charles I met with his parliament on and off for 20 years
Cavaliers
supported kings in english civil war
Roundheads
supported Parliament in english civil war
Rump Parliament
controlled by Oliver Cromwell that abolished the monarchy and proclaimed england a republic
New Model Army
Cromwells powerful army that defeated King Charles in English civil war.
Commonwealth
republic
Oliver Cromwell
dictatorish of england; dissolved parliament, encouraged trade
Richard Cromwell
Son of Oliver Cromwell, was weak and the strong army failed
Charles II
comes back to rule bc Richard sucks at life.
Restoration
when english monarchy was restored
Whigs
<3 parliament, no catholic rulers!
Tories
<3 Anglican Church, eh, catholics cool.
Glorious Revolution
bloodless transfer of power
William III
invited to rule england w/ Mary II. Noooooo kids.
Mary II
invited to rule in england with William III; daughter of James II
Tomas Hobbes
Philosopher that argued that people sacrificed their individual liberties for group safety and order.
John Locke
english philosopher that thinks people should have individual rights and they were superior to gov't laws.
Habeas corpus
protected people from unlawful punishment
English bill of rights
document that established that parliament had the power to choose who would govern England. Also stated that the monarch needed approval for taxes and to raise an army.
Toleration Act
granted some religious freedom to non Anglican protestants
Act of Settlement
Act that stipulated that the nearest Protestant relative of Hanover would be King if Queen Anne had no living children. This was passed to stop a Catholic was taking the throne.
Role of Parliament
Kings / Queens had to consult with Parliament in order to do something
Cabinet
heads of gov't departments
Magna Carta
"Great charter" ; english document that made the law the Supreme power
John Cabot
explored modern Canada; specifically Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and parts of New England
Sir Francis Drake
part of the sea dogs
Sea Dogs
sea captians/ explorers
Bitish East India Company
most powerful trading company
Henry Hudson
explorer that tried to find the NW passage but ended up getting lost somewhere in northern Canada
Northwest Passage
Water passage that went around North America to Asia
Mercantillism
Economic system was used to manage English colonies in North America