US History Honors Unit 2

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Terms in this set (...)

Dominion of New England
Southern Maine to New Jersey were known as Dominion of New England and were placed under one ruler, Sir Edmund Andros. He rules over colonies to make sure they do not smuggle.
Navigation Acts
Acts passed that restricted colonial trade and all how colonial trade has to go through England.
Salutary Neglect
An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies which led the colonies to have a taste of freedom which later on led to the revolution.
Colonial Settlers' Ethnic Diversity
There was a lot of ethnic diversity found in the Middle colonies
Rual vs Urban
Rual areas are less populated like villages and Urban is more populated like cities.
Triangular Trade
The trade with England, Africa, and the New World
Great Awakening
Mass movement of religion awakening of faith in the England 13 colonies 1740s-1750s
Enlightenment
The age of reason, represented time period after "dark" Middle Ages, where theorists and philosophers began to question centuries of religious, political and social traditions and promote new ideas on life in late 18th century early 19th century.
Poor Richard's Almanac
Benjamin Franklin's highly popular collection of information, parables, and advice
Zenger Trial
Trial that centered on Zenger's arrest for libel Zenger had printed opinions on critical of the Government in the NY Weekly Journal in 1734-1735
Sir Edmund Andros
Governor appointed by the King of England to govern over the Dominion of England. he reluctant to lead there and was cruel.
Jonathan Edwards
He began the Great Awakening in Northampton, Massachusetts. He was an intellectual pastor, he is well known for his sermon "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"
George Whitefield
Effective preacher, preached about his message in human helplessness and divine omnipotence.
Phillis Wheatley
American poet (born in Africa) who was the first recognized Black writer in America, she was a slave girl brought to Boston.
Benjamin Franklin
American enlightenment figure who was a scientist and inventor and he published Poor Richard's Almanac. He played major role in launching University of Pennsylvania.
John Peter Zenger
Newspaper printer who was tried for libe
CHAPTER 6
CHAPTER 6
Quebec
France's first permanent settlement founded by Samuel de Champlain
coureurs de bois
Runners of the woods, people in pursuit of beavers in the colonies.
Ohio Valley
Primary grounds for contention in the colonies
Detroit
"City of Straits" founded to prevent English spreading into the Ohio Valley founded by Antoine Cadillac.
New Orleans
Important fortified post in Mississippi
Louisborg
Named in honor of Louis XIV and founded by Robert de La Salle
Ft. Necessity
When George Washington and his men became surrounded by the French and Indians causing them to bunker down which evidently lead to their surrender.
French and Indian War (Seven Years' War)
Battles between the French and Indian allies against Britain and their Indian allies, overall dealt a huge blow to Indian tribes
Albany Conference
British government and Iroquois tribes met and had two goals in mind: Short term- Keep the Iroquois tribes loyal to the British. Long term- Achieve greater colonial unity
"Join or Die"
Famous cartoon drawn by Ben Franklin which encouraged the colonies to join in fighting united together to win rather than lose separated during the French and Indian War
Treaty of Paris (French and Indian War)
Ended the French and Indian war, Britain got France's N.A territory, Spain got France's forts in the Mississippi, Britain got Florida, Spain got Cuba, France was left with its sugar islands.
Colonial Militia
Thought as ill disciplined soldiers
Pontiac's Rebellion
Lead by chief Ottawa, Pontiac he led several tribes and French traders in a violent campaign meant to draw the British out of the Ohio country (killed almost 2 thousand soldiers and settlers)
Smallpox Blankets
British retaliated against French by using biological warfare, the British ordered infected blankets to be given out causing a change in crushing the uprising.
Proclamation of 1763
This prohibited settlement in the Appalachian, its intent was not to oppress the colonists it was to work out the Indian problem so there were no more bloody rebellions like Pontiac's Rebellion.
King Louis XIV
He took a deep interest in colony building during his 72 year reign.
Samuel de Champlain
In 1608 he established France's permanent settlements in Quebec, Canada and he founded Quebec. His nickname was "Father of New France".
Antoine Cadillac
In 1701 he founded Detroit to thwart English settlers.
Robert de La Salle
In 1682 he founded Louisiana to check Spanish penetration the region of the Gulf of Mexico.
George Washington in French Forts
He went to fight French forts, but was pressed and surrounded and was forced to surrender in Fort Necessity.
Edwards Braddock
General who was experiences, but didn't understand the colonial warfare leading his men to a bloody defeat.
William Pitt
Grew famoe in London government by 1757 and won the battle of Quebec in 1759
James Wolfe
An officer who led the battle in Quebec
Pontiac
Ottawa chief who led Pontiac's Rebellion
Daniel Boone
First pioneer to go to Tennessee and Kentucky area past the Appalachian Mountain border that was "prohibited"
CHAPTER 7
CHAPTER 7
Parliament
the lawmaking body of British government
Navigation Acts of 1650
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies, they were designed to maximize England's profit. Among other laws, colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
Mercantilism
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought and justified their control over the colonies.
Sugar Act
Act passed by parliament in 1764 that raised taxes on sugar imports to help pay for the debt of the 7 year war
Quartering Act
Act passed in 1765 that required colonists ti pay for food, lodging, and materials for British redcoats in the colonies.
Stamp Act
Act passed in 1765 taxes were raised on paper for all daily uses (documents, letters etc.)
Admiralty Courts
In British law, special administrative courts designed to handle maritime cases without a jury.
"No Taxation with Representation"
A famous quote from the Stamp Act in 1765
Stamp Act Congress
In 1765 in New York City meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.
Boycott
A refusal to buy or use goods and services.
Sons of Liberty and Daughters of Liberty
Organizations that led protests, helped American soldiers, instated a boycott, and generally resisted the British.
Tar & Feathering
punishment where men were dipped in tar and covered in feathers; painful and humiliating around Stamp Act
Repeal
to cancel an act or law
Declaratory Act
Act in 1766 where parliament announces its right to "bind" the colonies "in all cases whatsoever"
Townshend Acts
Act in 1767 taxes on glass, lead, paper, paint, & tea, as a means to generate revenue to pay royal governors salaries.
Boston Massacre
incident in 1770 in which British troops fired on and killed American colonists in a "snowball fight" turned violent
Committees of Correspondence
1772-1775 Samuel Adams organizes dozens of colonial groups to facilitate information on British troop movement
Tea Act
Act in 1773 where British West India Company establishes monopoly on tea trade; added tax to support their interests
Boston Tea Party
1773 Sons of Liberty dress like Indians and sump thousands of pounds of tea in Boston harbor to boycott the tax
Coercive (Intolerable) Acts
1774 Colonist to be punished for rebellious antics; port of Boston closed down and thousands of redcoats sent as police
Quebec Act
1774 Policy to lighten restrictions on French Canadians living under British control.
First Continental Congress
September 5 to October 26, 1774 in Philadelphia, PA an inter-colonial meeting called in reaction to passage of the intolerable acts and 55 attendees. The objectives were to demand removal of unpopular laws/taxes, re-establish peaceful relations w/ the Crown
Minutemen
citizen soldiers who could be ready to fight at a minute's notice
Lexington & Concord
(April 1775) First battles of the Revolutionary War, fought outside of Boston. Lexington "shot heard around the world" and British overpowered. The colonial militia successfully defended their stores of munitions in Concord, forcing the British to retreat to Boston.
Hessians
German mercenaries, who were hired by King George III to help fight the Americans
Continental Currency
the paper currency that the Continental government printed to fund the Revolution
Valley Forge
Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 1/4 of troops died here from disease, harsh weather, lack of resources and malnutrition, Baron von Steuben comes and trains troops. The men are focused in training and fighting
Profiteering
The selling of goods in short supply at inflated prices
John Hancock
Patriot leader and president of the Second Continental Congress; signed the Declaration of Independence.
George Grenville
Became prime minister of Britain in 1763 he ordered British Navy to strictly enforce Navigation Laws; proposed the Sugar & Stamp Acts to raise revenue in the colonies in order to defray the expenses of the French & Indian War & to maintain Britain's expanded empire in America. He angered the colonists with the acts.
Crispus Attucks
A free black man who was the first person killed in the at the Boston Massacre.
King George III
King of England during the American Revolution, he responded to the Olive Branch petition by officially claiming the colonies were under colonial rebellion.
Samuel Adams
American Revolutionary leader and patriot, Founder of the Sons of Liberty and one of the most vocal patriots for independence; signed the Declaration of Independence. Organzied the Committiees of Corespondence, and was in the First Continental Congress.
Marquis de Lafayette
French aristocrat soldier who joined General Washington's staff and became a general in the Continental Army.
Baron von Steuben
A stern, Prussian (German) drillmaster that taught American soldiers during the Revolutionary War how to successfully fight the British.
CHAPTER 8
CHAPTER 8
Second Continental Congress
May 10th, 1775-1783 All 13 colonies in Philadelphia, PA had an inter colonial meeting called to bloodshed in Massachusetts 60+ attended. The objectives were to address grievances with king/parliament one final time, to establish a military to defend interests until crown gives in. It was significant because they drafted the olive branch petition, declared independence after king George refused.
Ft. Ticonderoga
May 1775 American force under Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold surprise and capture the British garrisons at Ticonderoga and Crown point they get the cannons and gun powder. Americans win
Battle of Bunker Hill
June 1775 The British under Thomas Gage launched frontal attack and Americans shot 1,500 redcoats but they ran out of gunpowder and were forced to abandon the hill. British win
Olive Branch Petition
July 1775 The petition was sent to King George III to show American loyalty to the crown to prevent further hostilities. King George III did not agree
Invasion of Canada
Fall 1775 the battles of Montreal and Quebec, general Richard Montgomery and Benedict Arnold of the Americans took over Montreal but they lost it when they fought in Quebec to the British. British win.
Common Sense
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
Declaration of Independence
1776 statement, issued by the Second Continental Congress, explaining why the colonies wanted independence from Britain written by Thomas Jefferson and it was approved in July 4th, 1776
Patriots
American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won
Loyalists
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence
Battle of Long Island
Fall 1776 George Washington and his army are badly beaten at this battle by the British under William Howe. Sorely outnumbered and surrounded the troop that survived retreated. British win.
Battle of Trenton
Washington's army surprised the Hessians on Christmas Day while they were distracted/tried/drunk, Americans won
Battle of Princeton
Washington lead his army to attack Princeton after attacking Trenton since it was close by and he still had the element of surprise, Americans won
Battles of Brandywine & Germantown
Washington and William Howe (British) were involved in this fight. Washington now lost Philadelphia.
Battle of Saratoga
John Burgoyne (British) and Benedict Arnold were involved in this battle. Burgoyne had been surrounded by the American troops causing them to surrender their troops and lose the battle to the Americans
Alliance with France
Benjamin Franklin negotiated an agreement with France to fight with the Americans in 1778, this bounded the nations together and France was now helping the Americans fight the British and gain their independence
Battle of Monmouth
This battle was fought on the hottest day of the war with soldiers dying of sun stroke. George Washington and his men encountered British soldiers. Both sides withdrew and the battle remained indecisive. 1/3 of the British's Hessian troops deserted.
Charleston, SC
Charles Cornwalles (British) and Nathaniel Greene fought. This ended with the British winning and capturing five thousand men with hundreds of cannons and supplies. Had the support of the Loyalists in the south.
Privateers
Legalized pirates who were sent to prey on enemy ships and were thousand of these ships were able to profit gaining valuable British prizes.
Battle of Yorktown
This involved the men of Washington, Admiral de Grasse, and Rochambeu's. This battle was won by the Americans with the help of the French. General Cornwallis retreated to their fort in Yorktown where he had expected supplies and reenforcement from the British. The French controlled the entry to the Chesapeake Bay under Grasse, Washington and Rochambeu's men surrounded Cornwallis on the peninsula forcing him to surrender.
Treaty of Paris
The British recognized the United State's independence. France aimed to get the support of the U.S and revenge from this. Spain's aims are that they wanted to trans-Allegheny area.
George Washington
Commander of the Continental Army, he lost more battles than he won. He was a strong leader that had strong traits in being trustworthy and was humble. Fought without pay, cared for his men. Was formal in his warfare and wanted to be able to fight like the British did.
Ethan Allen
Leader of the Green Mountain Boys, lead them to the capture of Crown point, NY where the Americans gained important supplies of gun powder and supplies.
Benedict Arnold
American General who was labeled a traitor when he assisted the British in a failed attempt to take the American fort at West Point. He was greedy and ambitious, but also strived for attention and when he felt he did not receive it he turned traitor.
Thomas Paine
He was born in England but wrote the Common Sense that supported the colonists in their fight for independence. Publicized the idea of a political society that the power came from the people
Richard Henry Lee
Member of the Second Continental Congress who urged Congress to support independence; signer of the Declaration of Independence. He wanted the independence of the states.
Thomas Jefferson
Author of the Declaration of Independence, he was also responsible for drafting an explanation of why the colonists were declaring independence.
Abigail Adams
Wife of John Adams. During the Revolutionary War, she wrote letters to her husband describing life on the homefront. She urged her husband to remember America's women in the new government he was helping to create.
Patrick Henry
"Give me liberty or give me death", is the famous saying he had said before the Virginia Assembly
General William Howe
He took command of British troops in North America after the Battle of Bunker Hill. He captured New York and Philadelphia, but changed the plan to isolate the New England colonies instead going to Philadelphia which he was able to capture, but ruined the original plan.
General John Burgoyne
British general who surrendered at Saratoga, he was also a part of the plan in separating New England which failed.
Horatio Gates
American General whose troops defeated the British forces at Saratoga, and forced the surrender of Burgoyne.
John Adams
Married to Abagail Adams, participated writing and signing the Declaration of Independence
Nathaniel Greene
An American general responsible for exhausting Cornwallis's troops and being able to clear Georgia and South Carolina of the British troops. Highly valued General.
General Charles Cornwallis
British general who fought the Patriots in the south; surrounded at Yorktown and surrendered to George Washington. Won some battles such as the one at Charleston, SC
Chief Joseph Brant
An Anglican Mohawk leader who sided with the British because he thought they would prevent American westward expansion. He attacked colonial outposts on the New York frontier and won a formidable reputation after the raid on the fortified village of Cherry Valley, New York.He also thwarted the attempt of a rival chief, Red Jacket, to persuade the Iroquois to conclude a separate peace with the revolutionaries.
George Rogers Clark
Frontiersman who led a militia to defeat the British in the West at Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Vincennes. Forced the British out of the Ohio region. Led 175 men to capture the forts.
John Paul Jones
American naval commander that destroyed British merchant ships.
Comte de Rochambeau
Commanded a powerful French army of six thousand troops in the summer of 1780 and arrived in Newport, Rhode Island. They were planning a Franco - American attack on New York. Also responsible in fighting at Yorktown forcing the surrender of Cornwallis's troops.
John Jay
A part of the three people sent to France to negotiate on a treaty, he was from New York and was suspicious of the Old World.