BJU Life Science, Chapter 5, 4th Edition
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Terms in this set (42)
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
A nucleic acid biomolecule that carries genetic information in code and is usually found in the nucleus.
The basic structural unit of DNA and RNA, which contains a sugar, a phosphate, and a base.
A strand of DNA that may be wrapped around proteins -- usually found in the nucleus of a cell; contains genes.
A segment of DNA that codes for a specific protein (or part of a protein), which contributes to a specific characteristic.
Having two of each type of chromosome in the cells of an organism; human diploid number is 46 (two sets of 23 chromosomes).
The dividing of one cell into two cells; includes stages of mitosis and cytokinesis.
The phase of a cell's life cycle before mitosis and cytokinesis when the cell grows and chromosomes are duplicated.
The four-stage process of separating of a cell's replicated chromosomes that results in two identical nuclei (P-MAT).
(go) The first phase of mitosis, when the chromosomes coil and sister chromatids become obvious; nuclear membrane begins to disappear; spindle begins to form.
Identical copies of a chromosome; full sets of duplicated chromosomes are produced during interphase; hooked by a centromere.
(middle) The second phase of mitosis, when the sister chromatids line up in the middle of the spindle fibers.
These form a protein structure that divides the sister chromatids in a cell (like cat's cradle); centioles at each end.
Small cylindrical organelles near the nucleus in animal cells, occurring in pairs and involved in the development of spindle fibers in cell division.
(apart)The third phase of mitosis, when sister chromatids separate and each set of daughter chromosomes move to opposite ends of the spindle.
During mitosis, the separated sister chromatids are called this from the beginning of anaphase onward.
The last phase of mitosis, when the daughter chromosomes reach the end of the spindle and two identical nuclei form.
The final stage of cell division (after mitosis) in which the cytoplasm and cell membrane divides, forming two separate cells.
new cells produced by cell division
The production of a new organism resulting in offspring that are identical to the parent; in eukaryotes, involves mitotic cell divisions.
The process whereby one diploid cell forms four haploid cells (gametes) to be used in sexual reproduction.
Having only one of each chromosome normally found in the cells of an organism, such as in gametes; human haploid number is 23 (one set of each chromosome).
A haploid cell that contains only one of each type of chromosome found in an organism; an egg or sperm.
The formation of a zygote from the union of two gametes (when the sperm and egg unite to form a new individual).
The joining of cells (that have undergone meiosis--involves one haploid gamete from each parent) to form a diploid zygote cell, which develops into a new individual.
A diploid cell formed by the union of two gametes that is a new life.
The process of forming two DNA molecules from one original DNA molecule; occurs during interphase.
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
A nucleic acid made of a single chain of nucleotides. Three forms involved in process of using DNA and making proteins.
messenger RNA (mRNA)
The RNA molecule that transports a copy of DNA's coded message from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
The manufacturing of a single mRNA strand from a DNA molecule (making an RNA copy of the DNA).
The manufacturing of a protein from the mRNA copy of the DNA molecule; includes transcription and translation.
transfer RNA (tRNA)
The RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to the messenger RNA on a ribosome.
A sequence of three nucleotides in a mRNA molecule that codes for an amino acid to be used in a protein.
The building blocks of proteins (monomers that contain CHON).
Organic molecule polymer (many subunit monomers chemically bonded together) which combine to form living organisms; includes carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.
Small chemical unit that makes up a large biomolecule.
Organelles in eukaryotic cells in which proteins are formed; made of rRNA and protein; reads mRNA in codons and translates it into a chain of amino acids.
Biomolecule made of amino acids that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; made by cells when genes are translated.
Which cell processes are used for growth and repair?
mitosis and cytokinesis
Which cell process is used to prepare cells for sexual reproduction?
Which cell processes are used to make a protein?
transcription and translation (protein synthesis)
Which type of reproduction produces exact copies of the parent cell?
asexual reproduction (uses mitotic cell division)
Which type of reproduction produces a new mixture of genes from two different parents?
sexual reproduction (uses meiosis)
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