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Science Exam - Chapters 4 & 5
Terms in this set (63)
A carbon tax would be levied on fuels according to their carbon-emission intensity. This would most strongly impact coal prices, but would also affect oil and natural gas prices and result in:
All of the above
Due to the combustion of fossil fuels, our atmosphere has become one large experimental laboratory, leading to consequences that might cause disastrous alterations in our climate. However, many predictions have been made and so far have not come true such as massive sea level rises, melting of the Arctic and Antarctic ice caps, etc.: TRUE OR FALSE
The greenhouse effect is caused by gases in the atmosphere that absorb certain wavelengths of infrared radiation emitted from the earth that would otherwise radiate out to space: TRUE OR FALSE
Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect - The temperature measurements/estimates before 1900 are the source of major controversy surrounding global warming: TRUE OR FALSE
The largest source of US CO2 emissions is:
The US and China are within 1% of each other for CO2 emissions: TRUE OR FALSE
A prediction of Global Warming advocates is that the U.S. grain belt is slowly moving north into Canada: TRUE OR FALSE
A Global Warming possible impact is the ocean currents that are driven by temperature differences between the poles and equator, some areas could become colder in some areas (such as Europe) as a result of changes in circulation patterns of the oceans. TRUE OR FALSE
The main proponent and researcher for the hockey stick graph is a scientist named Michael Mann. He is a climatologist at Penn State: TRUE OR FALSE
The data in the Hockey Stick graph was largely based on a combination of tree growth ring analysis, ice core analysis, and temperature data recorded after air and sea surface temperatures were regularly recorded (20th century): TRUE OR FALSE
What climate scientist said "On the one hand, as scientists we are ethically bound to the scientific method. On the other hand, we are not just scientists, but human beings as well. And like most people, we'd like to see the world a better place, which in this context translates into our working to reduce the risk of potentially disastrous climatic change. To do that we need to get broad-based support, to capture the public's imagination. That, of course, entails getting loads of media coverage. So we have to offer up scary scenarios, make simplified, dramatic statements, and make little mention of any doubts we might have."?
Some global warming "deniers" are noble prize winners in physics, professors emeritus of physics and chemistry at major universities, and directors of major scientific organizations/centers: TRUE OR FALSE
Deforestation can contribute to increased amounts of CO2: TRUE OR FALSE
Thermal pollution is defined as the addition of unwanted heat to the environment, in particular, to natural waters. What is the potential effect(s)?
All of the above
What lead to the US leaving the Paris Climate Agreement?
All of the above
The commonly accepted model of the atom (see figure below) is called?
The Bohr Model
What element has the same number of neutrons and protons as an alpha particle?
What is the atomic number of Nitrogen?
The three types of hydrogen are protium, deuterium, tritium: TRUE OR FALSE
How many protons, neutrons, and electrons does F have? (refer to the Periodic Table)
9, 19, 9
The half life of an isotope is defined as the time it takes for half of the original amount of that isotope to decay into another element. For example, if we start with 100 grams of cobalt-60, which has a half-life of 5.3 years, then 5.3 years later, we will have _____ grams of cobalt-60 left:
If we start out with if we start with 200 grams of cobalt-60, which has a half-life of 5.3 years, then 10.6 years later, we will have _____ grams of cobalt-60 left:
The strong nuclear force binds the nucleus together and prevents the electromagnetic force from splitting the protons apart: TRUE OR FALSE
If a nucleus is too large (unstable) then it will emit an alpha particle or undergo spontaneous fission (split into smaller particles) to reduce the size and become more stable. TRUE OR FALSE
If a nucleus has too many neutrons it may spontaneously turn a neutron into a proton and an electron. This is called :
What is it called when there are too many protons to neutrons and a proton splits into neutron and positively charged particle the same size of an electron?
Another means to reduce the number of protons to neutrons ratio is when the proton combines with an electron and becomes a neutron. This is called?
An emission of energy from the nucleus that does not change the element into another element by changing the number of protons is called?
3 important factors for fission are?
All of the above
Radioactive nuclei decay all over our body every second. What repairs the DNA damage they do?
Matter is extremely dense energy. The equation that expresses that is?
What produces more energy, fusion or fission?
The national storage facility for Uranium is at:
What is used to begin a fission chain reaction with Uranium 235?
The intensity of radiation from a radioactive source depends on the number of nuclei present and the half-life. TRUE OR FALSE
A small amount of a substance with a short half-life may have a greater radiation intensity than a large quantity of a long-lived isotope. TRUE OR FALSE
The number of atoms that disintegrate per second is called the activity, which is measured in units of Becquerels (Bq) or Curies (Ci). TRUE OR FALSE
Carbon 14 decays into Nitrogen 14 by beta decay. That means that a neutron in Carbon turns into a proton and electron thus resulting in Nitrogen which has one greater proton than Carbon. Carbon 14 has a half life of 5,730 years. If you have a 80 gram sample how many years to only have 10 grams of Carbon 14 remaining?
Researchers with UC San Diego's Scripps Institution of Oceanography and Princeton University recently walked back scientific findings published last month that showed oceans have been heating up dramatically faster than previously thought as a result of climate change. In a paper published Oct. 31 in the journal Nature, researchers found that ocean temperatures had warmed 60 percent more than outlined by the United Nation's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Their findings were wrong. What was the major fault in their findings?
Error margins were too large to categorize the precise amount of warming
Where did the first nuclear reaction take place?
University of Chicago
Nuclear Power reactors have been installed on submarines, aircraft carriers, and power stations: TRUE OR FALSE
Nuclear Power produces the same harmful emissions as fossil fuels but in much less quantities so is considered green power: TRUE OR FALSE
The first major nuclear power accident occurred at Chernobyl: TRUE OR FALSE
The Three Mile Island Accident in 1979 occurred in North Alabama at the Browns Ferry Plant: TRUE OR FALSE
The Chernobyl radioactive plume cloud traveled over Western Europe and contaminated food sources: TRUE OR FALSE
What was the primary cause of the Fukushima Nuclear Plant accident?
Earthquake in Japan
Currently about 20% of the electricity generated in the US is from Nuclear Power Plants: TRUE OR FALSE
The US has more operating reactors than any other country: TRUE OR FALSE
Any nucleus can be "smashed" or broken apart when bombarded by a nucleon of high enough energy. However, only a few naturally occurring isotopes will fission with the absorption of a neutron of low energy. What is the most common naturally occurring isotope of Uranium that is suitable for creating a chain reaction:
One advantage of a nuclear power plant is that it uses only 35 tons of fuel per year compared to a trainload of coal per day: TRUE OR FALSE
1 kg of 235U produces the same amount of electrical output as 3000 tons pf coal: TRUE OR FALSE
The following diagram depicts a?
To ensure that the reaction will be self sustaining, the fuel used in conventional reactors must be "enriched" to 3% to 4% 235U. Fuel is enriched using which process?
All of the above
Fuel changes in a reactor are made annually, with about one-third (30 tons) of the core being removed each time. These spent fuel elements are stored in air drying bins at Yucca Mountain. TRUE OR FALSE
The reprocessing of reactor fuel to extract unused uranium and plutonium has long been thought to be an integral part of the nuclear fuel-cycle program. However, fears of nuclear proliferation have posed questions about whether reprocessing is worth the risk. The United States now has a federal law prohibiting ___________?
The following graph describes what type of Light Water Reactor
Pressure Water Reactor
Control Rods are typically made of?
Cadmium and Boron
Control Rods slow down the rate of reaction to a controllable limit. Otherwise it will cause at meltdown: TRUE OR FALSE
Because a nuclear power plant uses highly enriched uranium of 90% 235U they can easily explode: TRUE OR FALSE
Control Rods are lowered to decrease the nuclear reaction: TRUE OR FALSE
What element is produced in the nuclear reactor when 238U captures a neutron (yielding 239U) followed by a series of beta decays?
The Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant uses a
Pressure Water Reactor
Sequoyah has two units. Each unit can produce over
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