Upgrade to remove ads
Ch. 8 - International Insecurity and the Causes of War and Peace
Terms in this set (68)
According to realists, why does war happen?
because there is nothing to prevent it in this anarchic system
An event that immediately precedes an outcome and therefore provides the most direct explanation of it.
What do system-level realists believe results in proximate causes and their ability to ignite war? What do they believe is the underlying cause of war in general?
According to economic structuralists, how does capitalism produce the need for states to expand?
Declining returns on investment at home, the need for more labor and raw materials, and the quest for markets abroad all lead capitalist states to expand. (see the late-19th century surge in European imperialism)
When it comes to war, what do economic structuralists and liberal theorists agree on?
that war has often been fought for economic gains
According to liberal theorists, what reduces the likelihood of war? Why?
1) it is much cheaper to buy needed supplies on the free market than to acquire them through conquest.
2) Destroying a country that is a major market for one's exports and a major source of inputs is a losing proposition for the country.
liberal theorists conclude that war should occur for economic reasons only when there isn't...
an open market.
What role does geography play in trade and war?
States tend to trade most with their neighbors. They also tend to go to war most frequently with their neighbors. Therefore, there is a tendency for war between trading partners, even if trade does have some benefits. (see the European powers in WWI)
Realist, liberal, and economic structuralist theories of the causes of war are all ______-level theories
Why are new democracies more likely to fight wars than mature democracies or stable autocracies?
they don't yet have the institutionalized tendency toward compromise that motivates them to build public support through assertive foreign policies.
expected utility theory
leaders evaluate policies by combining their estimation of the utility/payoffs of potential outcomes with the likelihood that different outcomes will result from the policy in question.
What does expected utility theory say about war?
If war has a higher expected utility than peace for a given state, then that state will go to war.
Why do states with weak armies sometimes choose to resist more powerful states, rather than make concessions to avoid an attack?
For a weak state backed into a corner, a long shot at winning a war may have greater utility than the certainty of surrender - because if the state surrenders, its leader may be overthrown.
State-level realists believe anarchy is a _____ cause of war.
states that reject the status quo
power transition theory
war occurs when one state becomes powerful enough to challenge the dominant state and reorder the hierarchy of power within the international system. (see German policy leading to both World Wars)
the effort to improve a state's economic situation through military expansion, usually to gain better control of resources and markets. (see Japan's expansion into Southeast Asia)
a group consisting of a nation's armed forces, weapon suppliers and manufacturers, and elements within the civil service involved in defense efforts.
What is one argument about a state's military-industrial complex?
It can lobby governments to continuously increase defense spending.
How can nationalism lead to conflict?
Violence can result when one group of people believes it is so superior to others that it has the right (and perhaps the duty) to rule over or even exterminate other groups. (see Nazi Germany)
asserts that each group of people should rule itself
What happens when nationalism is combined with the related doctrine of national self-determination?
National groups are often mixed together and often cross established political boundaries.
As a result, the drive for national self-determination invariably involves giving one group control over a territory and either reducing other groups to second-class status or ejecting them from the territory altogether. It may also involve trying to conquer territory belonging to other states in order to bring an ethnic group under one government.
Diversionary Theory of War
wars are sometimes initiated to distract the public from other, more troubling issues.
Where do individual-level explanations of war find the causes of war?
either in human nature or in the psychology of individual leaders.
According to some scientists, why are humans inherently aggressive?
in a past anarchic environment, natural selection favored aggression in human beings.
Scientists that argue that humans are not inherently aggressive believe that violence is learned through...
Fog of War
A phrase coined by Prussian strategist Karl von Clausewitz to characterize the difficulties in controlling war once it starts.
Why is it so difficult to predict how war will turn out?
Every war is unique, in terms of the combatants, the circumstances, the technologies (which change over time), and the tactics.
"permissive" conditions of war
reasons why war is possible. (This understanding of cause is especially prominent in realist theory.)
"underlying" causes of war
General sources of conflict. (This notion of cause is found in many theories at the system and state levels.)
Decisions to initiate war are defined as a cause of war at what levels?
state and individual levels
Why did French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau advise smaller states to become autarchic to avoid conflict?
he argued that interdependence is often unequal and therefore leads to economic coercion and from there to conflict.
examples of underlying causes of war
distribution of power, capitalism, human nature
examples of proximate causes of war
crises, misperceptions, madmen
What might cause the final decision to attack?
the decision to initiate war
"multiple pathways" to war
no single cause will explain all wars.
is anarchy a cause or an effect of civil war?
Grievance-based approaches to explaining civil war look at...
the reasons people rebel.
Resource-based approaches to explaining civil war focus on...
economic factors as a source of conflict and as a constraint on states' ability to resist rebellion.
Rebel movements that seek either to take over a state or to secede to form a new state cite a variety of grievances as
2) reasons they deserve to rule.
Types of grievances
political, economic, territorial, ethnic, or religious.
seeking to overthrow the government or to force it to reform.
seeking to force a government to adopt different economic policies or to address some economic grievance.
seeking territorial autonomy or independence.
How can protests ultimately have international effects?
Protest can lead to political revolutions that fundamentally change the character of state governments, with profound international repercussions.
Examples of contentious politics with international effects
1) The French Revolution led to the Napoleonic wars.
2) The overthrow of Germany's democracy in the 1930s spurred World War II.
3) Protests in the 1960s played an important role in ending the Vietnam War.
What makes protests either grow into irresistible movements that force states to change course, or lose steam and disappear?
1) resource mobilization - mobilizing people to action and keeping them mobilized.
2) political opportunity structure - the constraints and opportunities that the movement faces. Can include divisions among elites and reduced government repression, both of which make it easier for protesters to pursue their goals.
How has technology impacted activist groups?
The Internet, cellular phone networks, and apps have made it possible for large numbers of people to communicate in real time, reducing some of the most difficult organizational challenges for protest leaders. Information can travel quickly, widely, and efficiently, both bottom-up and top-down, within movements. It's easier to mobilize others.
How have governments used new technology?
they use Internet surveillance and drones to keep track of potential adversaries.
The spread of protest and tactics through the process of observation and copying.
the active involvement of outside actors in contentious politics or civil war.
the spread of a domestic conflict across state borders
True or false: International conflict can be a source of domestic conflict.
Islamic State (ISIS) declared itself to be
a new Caliphate with aspirations to create a single, global Islamic government.
What is the goal of arms control?
to make war less likely and less destructive.
How can arms control agreements help prevent the outbreak of war?
by reducing uncertainty about states' capabilities and intentions.
Thomas Schelling on the Cold War
each country would have a strong incentive to go first, and each would know that the other side had the same incentive. The knowledge that war is possible can become a self-fulfilling prophecy.
How can arms control reduce the danger of war becoming a self-fulfilling prophecy?
by reducing the advantage from a first strike and by reducing uncertainty about other states' armaments.
Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) 1968
An agreement that states without nuclear weapons will refrain from obtaining them and will allow detailed inspections so that other states can be certain they are fulfilling their obligations
2015 Iran nuclear agreement
Iran and six other states (China, France, Germany, Russia, the UK, and the U.S.) agreed to limit Iran's nuclear weapons capabilities in return for an end to economic sanctions that the U.S., the EU, and the UN had enacted against Iran.
deploying foreign troops or observers into a region to reassure the parties to a conflict that they will be safe from attack.
The application or threat of force to compel states to stop fighting
2nd generation peacekeeping
goes beyond monitoring missions and may provide humanitarian assistance, help countries carry out elections, and protect civilians, with armed force if necessary.
Describe the rise of ISIS.
The Islamic State rose in a vacuum left by state collapse in Iraq, which was caused by the U.S. invasion in 2003.
It then grew to take part in the civil war in Syria, which originated domestically but was inspired and fed transnationally by the Arab Spring and was supported internationally by a variety of states with an interest in supporting one side or another.
As far as tactics, what has ISIS succeeded in doing?
using the tactics of terrorism and insurgency to take territory and hold it.
What has happened to potential opposition to ISIS?
The exceeding brutality of the Islamic State appears to have either eliminated or intimidated potential opposition within the territory it controls.
What actors have sought to push ISIS out of the territory it occupied?
1) local groups opposed to ISIS politics
2) global powers (notably the U.S.) worried about the regional threat posed to the Iraqi government and the global threat of terrorism from ISIS
This set is often in folders with...
Ch. 7 - International Organization and Transnation…
Ch. 9 - The Use of Force
Ch. 10 - Fundamentals of International Political E…
Ch. 11 - The Globalization of Trade and Finance
You might also like...
CH 5 Government notes
Chapter 5 and 6
Approaches to Global Politics
Other sets by this creator
SPN 2201 Ch 10
Elogio de la madrastra
SPN 2201 Ch 9
SPN 2201 Ch 8
Other Quizlet sets
Personal Finance Ch. 2
Phrases humanity test 2
Brain and Behavior - Exam One
BIOCHEM EXAM 3