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Anatomy Vocab Chapter 5

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Axial Skeleton
one of the two subdivisions of the skeleton, the bones that form the longitudinal axis of the body, the skull, vertebral column, ribs, and sternum.
Appendicular skeleton
One of the two subdivisions of the skeleton, the bones of the limbs and girdles that are attached to the axial skeleton.
Hematopoiesis
Blood cell formation that occurs within the marrow cavities of certain bones.
Diaphysis
Elongated shaft of a long bone.
Epiphyses
the ends of the long bone, consists of a thin layer of compact bone enclosing an area filled with spongy bone.
Epiphyseal plate
a flat plate of hyaline cartilage seen in young, growing bone. Cause the lengthwise growth of the bone.
Medullary cavity
The cavity of the shaft that is a storage area for adipose (fat) tissue, also called yellow marrow.
Osteocytes
Mature bone cells found within the matrix in tiny cavities called lacunae.
Lacunae
Tiny cavities in the matrix that contain osteocytes.
Lamellae
Concentric rings/circles made up of groups of hollow tubes of bone matrix that the lacunae are arranged in.
Central Haversion Canal
Canal that opens in the center of the osteon and contains blood vessels and nerves
Canaliculi
Hairlike canals that connect lacunae to each other and the central canal
Volkmann's canal
Completes the communication pathway from the outside of the bone to its interior which run into the compact bone at right angles to the shaft.
Ossification
process of bone formation that involves two major phases. First, hyaline cartilage model is covered with bone matrix and then the cartilage is digested away opening a medullary cavity within the newly formed bone.
Osteoblast
bone-forming cells
Osteoclast
giant bone-destroying cells in bones that break down bone matrix and release calcium ions into the blood.
Rickets
a disease of children in which the bones fail to calcify, the bones soften and the legs bow.
Reduction
a realignment of the broken bone ends (treats fractures)
Hematoma
blood-filled swelling when a bone breaks.
Articulation (joint)
The junction of two or more bones; an articulation.
Synarthroses/fibrous joint
an immovable joint
Amphiarthroses/cartilaginous joint
slightly movable joints. Bones united by cartilage, no joint cavity is present
Diarthroses/synovial joint
freely movable joints
Syndesmoses
the connecting fibers are longer than those of sutures; thus the joint has more "give". An immovable joint in which bones are joined by connective tissue. Between tibula and fibula.
Synchondroses
an almost immovable joint between bones bound by cartilage.
Dislocation
happens when a bone is forced out of its normal position in the joint cavity.
Bursitis
"water on the knee" due to the inflammation of bursae or synovial membrane.
Osteoarthritic
the most common form of arthritis, a chronic degenerative condition that typically affects the aged.
Rheumatoid arthritis
a chronic inflammatory disorder, it's a disorder in which the body's immune system attempts to destroy its own tissues.
Ankylosis
When the scar tissue eventually ossifies, and the bone ends become firmly fused.
Gout (y arthritis)
a disease in which uric acid accumulates in the blood and may be deposited as needle-shaped crystals in the soft tissues of joints.
Scoliosis
abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Kyphosis
abnormal outward curvature of the thoracic spine. Humpback
Lordosis
Abnormal anterior curvature of the lumbar spine (sway-back condition)
Osteoporosis
a condition in which the body's bones become weak and break easily.