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Psych final exam study guide

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It is difficult to develop a valid musical aptitude test because most of the time, the measures of the aptitude are misunderstood and demands that are unrealistic, made on them. Validity should be seen as construct validity. The problem sources are in two groups. The first group uses composite validity criteria. This forms the assumption that they are not dimensional. The second one uses subject groups. The groups do not represent the distribution of the construct in whole. In order to maximize the ecological validity, composite measures must be used as the criteria for validity. When there are several constructs of a composite, the multidimensional is the best predictor. In that case, there are similar proportions and properties of the criterion and predictor.Validity is also harder to obtain as in most cases the people that have been studied do not represent the population in general. The music variables range of the sample studied is less or more restricted. The musical aptitude of the group is not a representation of the whole variance.This is because the success of the studies in the music can only be seen in individuals who and they are always selected in a particular way. Validation of a measure is never completed as when new information comes up it affects the test. In order to standardize the test, I will make sure that it meets its objective. This will be done by giving the test several times with the goal of acquiring the same results every time. Reliability is more attainable because the test does not have to be perfect and it is not easily affected by variances.
Daniel Goleman, (2002), A psychologist who helped make the idea of EI popular, presented the concept of Emotional Intelligence as being encapsulated by four elements: Self Awareness, Self Management, Social Awareness, and Social Skills. The first element of Emotional Intelligence theory - Being self aware means that you understand you. - You understand what makes you tick and therefore, your strengths and weaknesses as a person, and a Leader. You can then start to understand why you feel, and what makes you feel. "Is this a good emotion, or should I feel a different way?" If you understand your emotions, you can identify their impact to you and those in your team. It is a path on the road to having humility, which is a much needed facet in Leadership. The second element of Goleman's Emotional Intelligence theory: self management - Through being in control of what you say and do, whilst rejecting the temptation to make rushed decisions, you can be in charge of your actions and therefore reducing the chance of compromising your values. Other aspects to nurture in this element are to show and actively apply conscientiousness, trustworthiness, Leading and adapting to change, complete drive to succeed and the initiative to think fast and act creatively and innovatively to solve problems. The third element of Emotional Intelligence Theory: Social awareness is the ability for a Leader to understand the emotions of the team members around them and to get a good comprehension of their emotional makeup. The ability to treat people according to these emotional reactions is vital. This area is linked to empathy: The ability to understand and see things in other peoples view points, expertise in building and retaining talent, valuing diversity and appreciating the organisational goals. In essence this part of emotional intelligence then, is about understanding and being truly in touch with the complete demands of the environment and acting to suit those conditions. The fifth and final element from Goleman's emotional intelligence theory, which links Leadership and Emotional Intelligence together: Leaders with good Social Skills are often very good communicators. Leaders who are good in this discipline are also good at conflict resolution and communicating the vision to team members, enlightening them and creating motivation and inspiration throughout the team. They are experts at getting their team to support them and also believe in their leadership. They set the example, for others to follow by demonstrating the acceptable behaviours and values.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation" in Psychological Review. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is used to study how humans partake in behavioral motivation intrinsically. Maslow used the terms "physiological," "safety," "belonging and love," "esteem," and "self-actualization" to describe the pattern through which human motivations generally move. This means that in order for motivation to occur at the next level, each level must be satisfied within the individual themselves. Furthermore, this theory is a key foundation in understanding how drive and motivation are correlated when discussing human behavior. Each of these individual levels contains a certain amount of internal sensation that must be met in order for an individual to complete their hierarchy.[3]The goal of Maslow's Theory is to attain the fifth level or stage: self-actualization. Physiological need is a concept that was derived to explain and cultivate the foundation for motivation. This concept is the basic foundation of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. This term was coined to represent a similar premise as drive.

Physiological needs are considered the main physical requirements for human survival. This means that Physiological needs are universal human needs. Physiological needs are considered the first step in internal motivation according to Maslow's hierarchy of needs. This theory states that humans are compelled to fulfill these physiological needs first in order to pursue intrinsic satisfaction on a higher level.[3] If these needs are not achieved, it leads to an increase in displeasure within an individual. In return, when individuals feel this increase in displeasure, the motivation to decrease these discrepancies increases.[3] Physiological needs can be defined as both traits and a state. . Physiological needs include:







Once a person's physiological needs are relatively satisfied, their safety needs take precedence and dominate behavior. In the absence of physical safety - due to war, natural disaster, family violence, childhood abuse, etc. - people may (re-)experience post-traumatic stress disorder or transgenerational trauma. In the absence of economic safety - due to an economic crisis and lack of work opportunities - these safety needs manifest themselves in ways such as a preference for job security, grievance procedures for protecting the individual from unilateral authority, savings accounts, insurance policies, disability accommodations, etc. This level is more likely to predominate in children as they generally have a greater need to feel safe. Safety and security needs are about keeping us safe from harm. These include shelter, job security, health, and safe environments. If a person does not feel safe in an environment, they will seek to find safety before they attempt to meet any higher level of survival, but the need for safety is not as important as basic physiological needs.

Safety and Security needs include:

Personal security

Emotional security

Financial security

Health and well-being

Safety needs against accidents/illness and their adverse impacts

After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third level of human needs are seen to be interpersonal and involves feelings of belongingness. This need is especially strong in childhood and it can override the need for safety as witnessed in children who cling to abusive parents. Deficiencies within this level of Maslow's hierarchy - due to hospitalism, neglect, shunning, ostracism, etc. - can adversely affect the individual's ability to form and maintain emotionally significant relationships in general.

Social Belonging needs include:




According to Maslow, humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance among social groups, regardless whether these groups are large or small. For example, some large social groups may include clubs, co-workers, religious groups, professional organizations, sports teams, gangs, and online communities. Some examples of small social connections include family members, intimate partners, mentors, colleagues, and confidants. Humans need to love and be loved - both sexually and non-sexually - by others.[2] Many people become susceptible to loneliness, social anxiety, and clinical depression in the absence of this love or belonging element. This need for belonging may overcome the physiological and security needs, depending on the strength of the peer pressure.

Esteem needs are ego needs or status needs. People develop a concern with getting recognition, status, importance, and respect from others. Most humans have a need to feel respected; this includes the need to have self-esteem and self-respect. Esteem presents the typical human desire to be accepted and valued by others. People often engage in a profession or hobby to gain recognition. These activities give the person a sense of contribution or value. Low self-esteem or an inferiority complex may result from imbalances during this level in the hierarchy. People with low self-esteem often need respect from others; they may feel the need to seek fame or glory. However, fame or glory will not help the person to build their self-esteem until they accept who they are internally. Psychological imbalances such as depression can distract the person from obtaining a higher level of self-esteem.

Most people have a need for stable self-respect and self-esteem. Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs: a "lower" version and a "higher" version. The "lower" version of esteem is the need for respect from others. This may include a need for status, recognition, fame, prestige, and attention. The "higher" version manifests itself as the need for self-respect. For example, the person may have a need for strength, competence[3], mastery, self-confidence, independence, and freedom. This "higher" version takes guidelines, the "hierarchies are interrelated rather than sharply separated".[5] This means that esteem and the subsequent levels are not strictly separated; instead, the levels are closely related.

"What a man can be, he must be."[5]:91 This quotation forms the basis of the perceived need for self-actualization. This level of need refers to what a person's full potential is and the realization of that potential. Maslow describes this level as the desire to accomplish everything that one can, to become the most that one can be.[5]:92 Individuals may perceive or focus on this need very specifically. For example, one individual may have a strong desire to become an ideal parent. In another, the desire may be expressed athletically. For others, it may be expressed in paintings, pictures, or inventions.[5]:93 As previously mentioned, Maslow believed that to understand this level of need, the person must not only achieve the previous needs but master them. Self-actualization can often be described as a value-based system when discussing its role in motivation. Since all levels of Maslow's hierarchy must have been met in order to acquire this level, seeking to fulfill this form of satisfaction can be defined as an explicit motive. An explicit motive can be defined as a reward-based system that is used to intrinsically pursue certain values or goals.[3] Individuals who are motivated to pursue this level are seeking and understanding how their sense of self-partakes within their human behavior. Self-actualization can include:[3]

Mate Acquisition


Utilizing Abilities

Utilizing Talents

Pursuing a goal

Seeking Happiness
Sigmund Freud's treatment of emotional disorders led him to believe that they spring from unconscious dynamics, which he sought to analyze through free associations and dreams. He referred to his theory and techniques as psychoanalysis. He saw personality as composed of pleasure-seeking psychic impulses (the id), a reality-oriented executive (the ego), and an internalized set of ideals (the superego).

Psychologists consider personality to be an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
In his private practice, Freud found that nervous disorders often made no neurological sense. Piecing together his patients' accounts of their lives, he concluded that their disorders had psycho- logical causes. His effort to understand these causes led to his "discovery" of the unconscious.
Initially, he thought hypnosis might unlock the door to the unconscious. However, recognizing patients' uneven capacity for hypnosis, Freud turned to free association, which he believed pro- duced a chain of thoughts in the patient's unconscious. He called the process (as well as his theory of personality) psychoanalysis.
Freud believed the mind is mostly hidden. Our conscious experience is like the part of the iceberg that floats above the surface. Below the surface is the much larger unconscious, which contains thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories of which we are largely unaware. Some of these thoughts we store temporarily in a preconscious area from which we can retrieve them into conscious awareness. Frued blieved that personality results from conflict arising from the interation amond the mind's three systems: the id (pleasure-seeking impulses), ego (reality-oriented executive), and superego (internalized set of ideals, or conscience.
The DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition) was put out by the American Psychiatric Association as a system of classification of psychological disorders Supporting the Argument: ● Some believe that the DSM-IV casts too wide of a net and could describe almost any behavior as a symptom of one or more disorder. ● The first edition DSM classified 60 conditions, the DSM-IV now covers 400, making the number of adults who meet the criteria of at least one psychiatric disorder up to 30% (results from one survey). ● In order for the classification system to even work the DSM-IV must be developed and understood in a specific way so it is universally applicable by diagnosticians, giving a general description of the disorder. This may mean that someone with a psychiatric disorder may not fit the exact criteria and may be misdiagnosed if the physician does not make an appropriate assessment of their symptoms/conditions. Against the Argument: ● Diagnostic classification describes the disorder and makes it recognizable to diagnosticians as well as predicting the future course of the disorder and suggesting appropriate treatment methods. ● If one is diagnosed they will have treatments available to them that will subdue and prevent symptoms of their disorder. ● The DSM-IV allows research to be conducted on the different disorders, this will lead to a stronger understanding and will further the research on treatments. ● Many find this classification system helpful, most North American health insurance companies require a DSM-IV diagnosis
Anxiety is a normal reaction to stress and can be beneficial in some situations. It can alert us to dangers and help us prepare and pay attention. Anxiety disorders differ from normal feelings of nervousness or anxiousness, and involve excessive fear or anxiety. Anxiety disorders are the most common of mental disorders and affect nearly 30 percent of adults at some point in their lives. . But anxiety disorders are treatable and a number of effective treatments are available. Treatment helps most people lead normal productive lives. Anxiety refers to anticipation of a future concern and is more associated with muscle tension and avoidance behavior.

Fear is an emotional response to an immediate threat and is more associated with a fight or flight reaction - either staying to fight or leaving to escape danger.

Anxiety disorders can cause people into try to avoid situations that trigger or worsen their symptoms. Job performance, school work and personal relationships can be affected.

In general, for a person to be diagnosed with an anxiety disorder, the fear or anxiety must:

Be out of proportion to the situation or age inappropriate

Hinder your ability to function normally

There are several types of anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, specific phobias, agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder and separation anxiety disorder.

Anxious feelings and behaviors are classified as an anxiety disorder only when they form a pattern of distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.

People with generalized anxiety disorder feel persistently and uncontrollably tense and apprehensive, for no apparent reason.

In the more extreme panic disorder, anxiety escalates into periodic episodes of intense dread.

Those with a phobia may be irrationally afraid of a specific object, activity, or situation.

Two other disorders (OCD and PTSD) involve anxiety but are classified separately from the anxiety disorders.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that can occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event such as a natural disaster, a serious accident, a terrorist act, war/combat, rape or other violent personal assault.

PTSD has been known by many names in the past, such as "shell shock" during the years of World War I and "combat fatigue" after World War II. But PTSD does not just happen to combat veterans. PTSD can occur in all people, in people of any ethnicity, nationality or culture, and any age. PTSD affects approximately 3.5 percent of U.S. adults, and an estimated one in 11 people will be diagnosed PTSD in their lifetime. Women are twice as likely as men to have PTSD.

People with PTSD have intense, disturbing thoughts and feelings related to their experience that last long after the traumatic event has ended. They may relive the event through flashbacks or nightmares; they may feel sadness, fear or anger; and they may feel detached or estranged from other people. People with PTSD may avoid situations or people that remind them of the traumatic event, and they may have strong negative reactions to something as ordinary as a loud noise or an accidental touch.

A diagnosis of PTSD requires exposure to an upsetting traumatic event. However, exposure could be indirect rather than first hand. For example, PTSD could occur in an individual learning about the violent death of a close family. It can also occur as a result of repeated exposure to horrible details of trauma such as police officers exposed to details of child abuse cases.