making a forecast about what will happen in the future based on past experience or evidence
refers to the diverse ways in which scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on the evidence they gather
formed by the action of sunlight on pollutants such as hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides
a type of energy that comes to Earth from the Sun, can damage skin and cause cancer, and is mostly absorbed by the ozone layer
the physical process in which particles are deflected haphazardly as a result of collisions
natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases
total amount of energy associated with the random movement of atoms and molecules in a sample of matter
air moving (sometimes with considerable force) from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure
An index that uses air temperature and wind speed to determine the chilling effect of the environment on humans.
movement of air from sea to land during the day when cooler air from above the water moves over the land, forcing the heated, less dense air above the land to rise
movement of air from land to sea at night, created when cooler, denser air from the land forces up warmer air over the sea
The way Earth's rotation makes winds in the Northern Hemisphere curve to the right and winds in the Southern Hemisphere curve to the left.
prevailing winds that blow from east to west from 30 degrees latitude to the equator in both hemispheres
Prevailing winds that blow from east to west between 60degrees-90degrees latitude in both hemisphere.
winds that blow west to east between 30 and 60 degrees in the northern and southern hemispheres
a high-speed high-altitude airstream blowing from west to east near the top of the troposphere
the continuous process by which water moves from Earth's surface to the atmosphere and back
the percentage of water vapor in the air compared to the maximum amount the air could hold
the temperature at which the water vapor in the air becomes saturated and condensation begins
big, puffy clouds that have fair weather. is made when warm air rises (generally low altitude)
a huge body of air that has similar temperature, humidity, and air pressure at any given height
polar air mass
A cold air mass that forms north of 50° north latitude and south of 50° south latitude and has high air pressure
(meteorology) the atmospheric phenomenon created at the boundary between two different air masses
forms when cold air moves under warm air which is less dense and pushes air up (produces thunderstorms heavy rain or snow)
faster-moving warm air collides with cold air and rises over the cold air; bring warm, humid weather
a front that forms when a cold air mass overtakes a warm air mass and lifts the warm air mass off the ground and over another air mass
a small storm often accompanied by heavy precipitation and frequent thunder and lightning
Are thunderclouds and are likely to generate lightning, hail and fierce convection currents.
the flash of light that accompanies an electric discharge in the atmosphere (or something resembling such a flash)
a localized and violently destructive windstorm occurring over land characterized by a funnel-shaped cloud extending toward the ground
A severe storm that develops over tropical oceans and whose strong winds of more than 120 km/h spiral in toward the intensely low-pressure storm center
climate within a small area that differs significantly from the climate of the surrounding area
the region between 66.5 degrees north and south latitudes and the poles; the sun's rays strike at a very small angle in this zone
the area between the tropical and polar zones, from about 23.5 degrees to 66.5 degrees north and 23.5 degrees to 66.5 degrees south latitudes
the climate of an area near an ocean or large lake. Such an area has mostly mild winters and cool summers.
The climate of the centers of continents with cold winters and warm or hot summers
the side facing away from the wind. by the time the prevailing winds reach the top of the mountain, they have lost most of their mositure in the form of precipitation. relatively dry air moves down the leeward side of the mountain.
the side that faces toward the wind. receives a great deal of precipitation. has a wet climate on this side.
a seasonal wind pattern in southern Asia that blows warm, moist air from the southwest during the summer, bringing heavy rains, and cold, dry air from the northeast during the winter
main climate regions
tropical rainy, dry, temperate marine, temperate continental, polar, and highlands.
a region of grassland with scattered trees lying between the equatorial forest and the hot deserts in either hemisphere
A type of biome characterized by low moisture levels and infrequent and unpredictable precipitation. Daily and seasonal temperatures fluctuate widely
Treeless arctic or alpine biome characterized by cold, harsh winters, a short growing season, and potential for frost any month of the year; vegetation includes low-growing perennial plants, mosses and lichens
causes of climate change
variations in the position of earth relative to the sun, changes in the sun's energy output, major volcanic eruptions, movement of the continents
areas on the sun's surface that are cooler and less bright than surrounding areas, are caused by the sun's magnetic field, and occur in cycles
the name given to the periodic warming of the ocean that occurs in the central and eastern Pacific
a cooling of the ocean surface off the western coast of South America, occurring periodically every 4 to 12 years and affecting Pacific and other weather patterns.
an increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere (especially a sustained increase that causes climatic changes)
Gases in the earth's lower atmosphere (troposphere) that cause the greenhouse effect. Examples are carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, ozone, methane, water vapor, and nitrous oxide.