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112 terms

9th grade-general science term 1-MAIA

STUDY
PLAY
observing
using one or more of your senses to gather information
quantitative
deal with a number or amount
qualitative
deal with descriptions which can not be expressed in numbers
inferring
explaining or interpreting the things you observe
predicting
making a forecast about what will happen in the future based on past experience or evidence
classifying
process of grouping together items that are alike in some way
making models
involves creating representations of complex objects or processes
science
a way of learning about the natural world
scientific inquiry
refers to the diverse ways in which scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on the evidence they gather
hypothesis
possible explanation for a set of observations or answer to a scientific question
variables
factors that can change in an environment
manipulated variable
variable that is purposed changed to test a hypothesis
responding variable
factor that may change in response to the manipulated variable.
controlled experiment
experiment in which only one variable is manipulated at a time
scientific theory
well-tested explanation for a wide range of observations or experimental results.
use of SI
allows scientists to compare data and communicate with each other about their results
accuracy
refers to how close a measurement is to the true or accepted value
precision
refers to how close a group of measurements are to one another
line of best fit
line that reflects the overall trend of a graph
weather
condition of the earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place.
ozone
form of oxygen that is made of three oxygen atoms instead of the usual two
barometer
instrument used to measure air pressure
atmosphere layers
Troposphere, Statosphere, Mesosphere, thermosphere
photochemical smog
formed by the action of sunlight on pollutants such as hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides
electromagnetic waves
a form of energy that can travel through space
radiation
energy that is radiated or transmitted in the form of rays or waves or particles
ultraviolet radiation
a type of energy that comes to Earth from the Sun, can damage skin and cause cancer, and is mostly absorbed by the ozone layer
scattering
the physical process in which particles are deflected haphazardly as a result of collisions
infrared radiation
the bundles of light energy that transfer heat
greenhouse effect
natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases
temperature
the average kinetic energy of the individual particles
thermal energy
total amount of energy associated with the random movement of atoms and molecules in a sample of matter
thermometer
An instrument used to measure temperature
heat
a form of energy that is transferred by a difference in temperature
conduction
the direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that it is touching
convection
the transfer of heat through a fluid (liquid or gas) caused by molecular motion
convection currents
circular movement of a substance due to changes in temperature and density
wind
air moving (sometimes with considerable force) from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure
anemometer
an instrument used to measure wind speed
wind-chill factor
An index that uses air temperature and wind speed to determine the chilling effect of the environment on humans.
local winds
winds that blow over short distances
sea breeze
movement of air from sea to land during the day when cooler air from above the water moves over the land, forcing the heated, less dense air above the land to rise
land breeze
movement of air from land to sea at night, created when cooler, denser air from the land forces up warmer air over the sea
global winds
winds that blow steadily from specific directions over long distances
Coriolis effect
The way Earth's rotation makes winds in the Northern Hemisphere curve to the right and winds in the Southern Hemisphere curve to the left.
trade winds
prevailing winds that blow from east to west from 30 degrees latitude to the equator in both hemispheres
polar easterlies
Prevailing winds that blow from east to west between 60degrees-90degrees latitude in both hemisphere.
prevailing westerlies
winds that blow west to east between 30 and 60 degrees in the northern and southern hemispheres
latitude
distance north or south of the Equator, measured in degrees
jet stream
a high-speed high-altitude airstream blowing from west to east near the top of the troposphere
water cycle
the continuous process by which water moves from Earth's surface to the atmosphere and back
evaporation
the process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas
humidity
a measure of the amount of water vapor in the air
relative humidity
the percentage of water vapor in the air compared to the maximum amount the air could hold
psychrometer
instrument used to measure relative humidity
condensation
the process of changing from a gaseous to a liquid or solid state
dew point
the temperature at which the water vapor in the air becomes saturated and condensation begins
cirrus cloud
A high-altitude cloud with a featherlike shape, made of ice crystals
cumulus cloud
big, puffy clouds that have fair weather. is made when warm air rises (generally low altitude)
stratus clouds
clouds that form in flat layers and often cover much of the sky
air mass
a huge body of air that has similar temperature, humidity, and air pressure at any given height
types of air masses
Maritime Polar, Maritime Tropical, Continental Polar, Continental Polar
tropical air mass
A warm air mass that forms in the tropics and has low air pressure
polar air mass
A cold air mass that forms north of 50° north latitude and south of 50° south latitude and has high air pressure
maritime air mass
A humid air mass that forms over oceans
continental air mass
A dry air mass that forms over land
front
(meteorology) the atmospheric phenomenon created at the boundary between two different air masses
cold front
forms when cold air moves under warm air which is less dense and pushes air up (produces thunderstorms heavy rain or snow)
warm fronts
faster-moving warm air collides with cold air and rises over the cold air; bring warm, humid weather
stationary front
when a warm air mass and a cold air mass meet and no movement occurs
occluded front
a front that forms when a cold air mass overtakes a warm air mass and lifts the warm air mass off the ground and over another air mass
cyclone
(meteorology) rapid inward circulation of air masses about a low-pressure center
anticyclone
An atmospheric condition of high central pressure, with currents flowing outward.
storm
a violent disturbance in the atmosphere
thunderstorm
a small storm often accompanied by heavy precipitation and frequent thunder and lightning
cumulonimbus clouds
Are thunderclouds and are likely to generate lightning, hail and fierce convection currents.
lightning
the flash of light that accompanies an electric discharge in the atmosphere (or something resembling such a flash)
tornado
a localized and violently destructive windstorm occurring over land characterized by a funnel-shaped cloud extending toward the ground
hurricane
A severe storm that develops over tropical oceans and whose strong winds of more than 120 km/h spiral in toward the intensely low-pressure storm center
storm surge
a dome of water that sweeps across the coast where a hurricane lands
evacuation
the removal of persons or things from an endangered area
meteorologists
scientists who study the causes of weather and try to predict it
weather satellite
Satellites used to record temperature, cloud cover, precipitation, etc.
isobars
lines joining places on the map that have the same air pressure
isotherms
lines that connect points that have the same temperature
climate
the weather in some location averaged over some long period of time
microclimate
climate within a small area that differs significantly from the climate of the surrounding area
tropical zone
near the equator, between 23.5 degrees North and 23.5 degrees South latitudes
polar zone
the region between 66.5 degrees north and south latitudes and the poles; the sun's rays strike at a very small angle in this zone
temperate zone
the area between the tropical and polar zones, from about 23.5 degrees to 66.5 degrees north and 23.5 degrees to 66.5 degrees south latitudes
marine climate
the climate of an area near an ocean or large lake. Such an area has mostly mild winters and cool summers.
continental climate
The climate of the centers of continents with cold winters and warm or hot summers
leeward side
the side facing away from the wind. by the time the prevailing winds reach the top of the mountain, they have lost most of their mositure in the form of precipitation. relatively dry air moves down the leeward side of the mountain.
windward side
the side that faces toward the wind. receives a great deal of precipitation. has a wet climate on this side.
monsoon
a seasonal wind pattern in southern Asia that blows warm, moist air from the southwest during the summer, bringing heavy rains, and cold, dry air from the northeast during the winter
main climate regions
tropical rainy, dry, temperate marine, temperate continental, polar, and highlands.
rain forest
dense forest that receives high amounts of rain each year
savannas
a region of grassland with scattered trees lying between the equatorial forest and the hot deserts in either hemisphere
desert
A type of biome characterized by low moisture levels and infrequent and unpredictable precipitation. Daily and seasonal temperatures fluctuate widely
steppe
the term used for the temperate grassland region in the Northern Hemisphere.
humid subtropical
hot, rainy summers and mild Winters with some rain
subarctic
Weather pattern characterized by severely cold, bitter winters and short, cool summers.
tundra
Treeless arctic or alpine biome characterized by cold, harsh winters, a short growing season, and potential for frost any month of the year; vegetation includes low-growing perennial plants, mosses and lichens
permafrost
permanently frozen layer of soil beneath the surface of the ground
ice age
any period of time during which glaciers covered a large part of the earth's surface
causes of climate change
variations in the position of earth relative to the sun, changes in the sun's energy output, major volcanic eruptions, movement of the continents
sunspots
areas on the sun's surface that are cooler and less bright than surrounding areas, are caused by the sun's magnetic field, and occur in cycles
El nino
the name given to the periodic warming of the ocean that occurs in the central and eastern Pacific
la nina
a cooling of the ocean surface off the western coast of South America, occurring periodically every 4 to 12 years and affecting Pacific and other weather patterns.
global warming
an increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere (especially a sustained increase that causes climatic changes)
greenhouse gases
Gases in the earth's lower atmosphere (troposphere) that cause the greenhouse effect. Examples are carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, ozone, methane, water vapor, and nitrous oxide.
chlorofluorocarbons
group of chemical compounds used in refrigerators, air conditioners, foam packaging, and aerosol sprays that may enter the atmosphere and destroy ozone