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Beethoven's last will and testament; written in 1802 after he realized he would lose his hearing entirely
Beethoven's middle period from 1803-1813; his works became longer, grander, and more assertive
nearly twice as long as a typical symphony; dedicated to Napoleon Bonaparte, but dedication scratched out when Napoleon declared himself emperor
chords constructed on the chromatic notes within the twelve-note chromatic scale; gave more colors to Romantic harmony
expression mark for a performer; "stole" some time here and gave it back there, moving faster or slower so as to effect an intensely personal performance
very brief works that tried to capture a single mood, sentiment, or emotion; often written for piano in binary (AB) or ternary (ABA) form
a song for solo voice and piano accompaniment with high artistic aspiration; Schubert specialized in this
a tightly structured group of individual songs that tell a story or treat a single theme; ex. Die schoene Mullerin
form preferred for text that does not tell a story or project a series of changing moods; a single poetic mood is maintained
instrumental music, usually written for symphony orchestra, that seeks to re-create in sound the events and emotion portrayed in some extramusical source (e.g. a story, legend, play, novel, historical event)
a symphony with the usual three, four, or five movements which together depict a succession of specific events or scenes drawn from an extramusical story or event
a one-movement work, usually in sonata-allegro form; encapsulates in music the essential dramatic events of an opera or play
a one-movement work of programmatic content originally intended for the concert hall; does not precede an opera or play
tone poem (symphonic poem)
a one-movement work for orchestra; gives musical expression to the emotions and events associated with a story, play, political event, or personal experience
burial hymn of the medieval Church; played bye ophicleides and bassoons in Berlioz's "Dream of the Witches' Sabbath"
counterpoint with two themes that can reverse position, with the top theme moving to the bottom, and the bottom to the top
music with short bursts of tuneful melody and captivating rhythm, intended to capture the emotional essence of the scene
softens the dynamic level of the piano by shifting the position of the hammers relative to the strings
overlaying the lowest-sounding strings across those of the middle register to produce a richer sound
a type of Italian opera that features the beautiful tone and brilliant technique of the human voice
the movement for a united Italy free from foreign domination; Verdi became a leader through his patriotic music
a recitative accompanied by the orchestra instead of simply the basso continuo
a set of four Wagner operas intended to be performed during the course of four successive evenings
a musical work for the stage in which all the arts poetry, music, acting, mime, dance, and scenic design) function as a harmonious ensemble
a brief, distinctive unit of music designed to represent a character, object, or idea, which returns repeatedly in order to show how the drama is unfolding
a technique in which two strings on a string instruments are pressed down and played simultaneously
an art song in which the full orchestra replaces the piano as the medium of accompaniment
a movement that arose in France in opposition to German Romantic music; Debussy was inspired by this form of art
a musical process in which all of the lines or parts move in the same direction, and at the same intervals, for a period of time; the opposite of counterpoint
any sounds drawn from outside the traditional Western European musical experience; e.g. a non-Western scale, a folk rhythm, a musical instrument
avoiding a simple interval for a more distant one an octave above or below; a feature of modern music
the simultaneous sounding of a number of pitches only a whole step or a half step a part; a highly-dissonant chord
a style which emphasized classical forms and smaller ensembles; concurrent with the disappearance of large symphony orchestras in Europe due to World War I; developed by Stravinsky
a vocal technique that requires the vocalist to declaim the text more than to sing it; the rhythmic values are exact, but once the voice his the pitch, it must slide in either a downward or upward direction
a method of writing that employs each of the twelve notes of the chromatic scale set in a fixed, predetermined order
the overthrow of the Russian tsar by the socialist Bolshevik Party; was reflected in music
a machine that can create, transform, and combine sounds by means of electronic circuitry
music in which the composer works with sounds found naturally in the everyday world
a technique whereby the rapper or producer extracts a small portion of prerecorded music and then mechanically repeats it over and over as a musical backdrop to the text they rap
a technique popular in rap and hip hop; a DJ manipulates the needles, scratching on the vinyl of the record
a grand piano outfitted with screws, bolts, washers, erasers, and bits of felt and plastic inserted between the strings; invented by John Cage
music in which musical events are not carefully predetermined by the composer, but come instead in an unpredictable sequence as the result of nonmusical decisions (e.g. tossing coins, throwing dice, or shuffling randomly the pages of music to be played); invented by John Cage
a style of postmodern music that takes a very small musical unit and repeats it over and over to form a composition; Philip Glass was famous for this
a form of black folk song that originated in the South during the late 1800s; typical subjects are poverty loneliness, oppression, family troubles, infidelity, etc.
a way of replying to the cry of the voice in blues by inserting a short instrumental response at the end of each line
a lively, energetic music with with syncopation and pulsating rhythms; usually played by several instruments with independent lines (polyphonic); includes and element of improvisation
a tune so influential as to cause other musicians to record many other interpretations of it called "covers"
jazz that emphasized lyricism, lower instrumental registers, moderate tempos, and quieter dynamics
Tin Pan Alley
a cluster of music stores in New York City; where the music industry in America was born
a form of American popular musical theater that emerged shortly after 1900; most of the dialogue is spoken, but the emotional high points are sung
rhythm and blues
music that followed the twelve-bar blues chord progression, was set in 4/4, and featured expressive solo singing with a lively, upbeat aesthetic
a rebellious style of rock developed in the in 1970s and exemplified by the Sex Pistols, the Ramones, and the Clash
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