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91 terms

music final

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"Pathetique" Sonata
a multimovement solo work for piano by Beethoven; suggests passion and pathos
Heiligenstadt Testament
Beethoven's last will and testament; written in 1802 after he realized he would lose his hearing entirely
"heroic" period
Beethoven's middle period from 1803-1813; his works became longer, grander, and more assertive
"Eroica" Symphony
nearly twice as long as a typical symphony; dedicated to Napoleon Bonaparte, but dedication scratched out when Napoleon declared himself emperor
Ode to Joy
Beethoven symphony in honor of universal brotherhood, first symphony to include a chorus
canon
works of classical music which constitute the core of today's concert repertoire
chromatic harmony
chords constructed on the chromatic notes within the twelve-note chromatic scale; gave more colors to Romantic harmony
rubato
expression mark for a performer; "stole" some time here and gave it back there, moving faster or slower so as to effect an intensely personal performance
character piece
very brief works that tried to capture a single mood, sentiment, or emotion; often written for piano in binary (AB) or ternary (ABA) form
art song
a song for solo voice and piano accompaniment with high artistic aspiration; Schubert specialized in this
Leid
another word for "art song"; cultivated most intensely in German-speaking lands
Schubertiads
gatherings at which Schubert appeared, and at which only his compositions were played
song cycle
a tightly structured group of individual songs that tell a story or treat a single theme; ex. Die schoene Mullerin
through-composed
musical composition featuring ever-changing melodic and harmonic material
strophic form
form preferred for text that does not tell a story or project a series of changing moods; a single poetic mood is maintained
program music
instrumental music, usually written for symphony orchestra, that seeks to re-create in sound the events and emotion portrayed in some extramusical source (e.g. a story, legend, play, novel, historical event)
absolute music
instrumental music free of a text or any preexisting program
program symphony
a symphony with the usual three, four, or five movements which together depict a succession of specific events or scenes drawn from an extramusical story or event
dramatic overture
a one-movement work, usually in sonata-allegro form; encapsulates in music the essential dramatic events of an opera or play
concert overture
a one-movement work of programmatic content originally intended for the concert hall; does not precede an opera or play
tone poem (symphonic poem)
a one-movement work for orchestra; gives musical expression to the emotions and events associated with a story, play, political event, or personal experience
ophicleide
an early form of the tuba
English horn
a low oboe
cornet
a brass instrument with valves, borrowed from the military band
idee fixe
fixed idea; single melody that reappears as a unifying force, movement after movement
Dies irae
burial hymn of the medieval Church; played bye ophicleides and bassoons in Berlioz's "Dream of the Witches' Sabbath"
diminution
a reduction, usually by half, of all the rhythmic durations in a melody
double counterpoint
counterpoint with two themes that can reverse position, with the top theme moving to the bottom, and the bottom to the top
col legno
string players strike the strings with the wood of the bow
ballet
a dramatic dance in which the characters, using steps and pantomime, tell a story
ballet music
music with short bursts of tuneful melody and captivating rhythm, intended to capture the emotional essence of the scene
celesta
a keyed percussion instrument
soft pedal
softens the dynamic level of the piano by shifting the position of the hammers relative to the strings
cross-stringing
overlaying the lowest-sounding strings across those of the middle register to produce a richer sound
mazurka
a fast dance in triple meter with an accent on the second beat; specialty of Chopin
bel canto
a type of Italian opera that features the beautiful tone and brilliant technique of the human voice
Risorgimento
the movement for a united Italy free from foreign domination; Verdi became a leader through his patriotic music
recitativo accompagnato
a recitative accompanied by the orchestra instead of simply the basso continuo
Ring cycle
a set of four Wagner operas intended to be performed during the course of four successive evenings
music drama
a musical work for the stage in which all the arts poetry, music, acting, mime, dance, and scenic design) function as a harmonious ensemble
Gesamtkunstwerk
total art work; Wagner's "musical drama" combining all of the arts
Liebestod
Isolde's vision of she and Tristan's love beyond the grave
leitmotif
a brief, distinctive unit of music designed to represent a character, object, or idea, which returns repeatedly in order to show how the drama is unfolding
double stops
a technique in which two strings on a string instruments are pressed down and played simultaneously
orchestral song
an art song in which the full orchestra replaces the piano as the medium of accompaniment
Impressionism
a movement that arose in France in opposition to German Romantic music; Debussy was inspired by this form of art
whole-tone scale
a scale employed by Debussy in which all of the pitches are a whole step apart
parallel motion
a musical process in which all of the lines or parts move in the same direction, and at the same intervals, for a period of time; the opposite of counterpoint
exoticism
any sounds drawn from outside the traditional Western European musical experience; e.g. a non-Western scale, a folk rhythm, a musical instrument
Cubism
a new musical style characterized by angular melody and discontinuous rhythm
octave displacement
avoiding a simple interval for a more distant one an octave above or below; a feature of modern music
tone cluster
the simultaneous sounding of a number of pitches only a whole step or a half step a part; a highly-dissonant chord
Neo-classicism
a style which emphasized classical forms and smaller ensembles; concurrent with the disappearance of large symphony orchestras in Europe due to World War I; developed by Stravinsky
polymeter
two or more meters sounding simultaneously
polyrhythm
two or more rhythms sounding simultaneously
polychord
one triad or seventh chord sounding simultaneously with another
atonal music
music without tonality, without a key center
Sprechstimme
a vocal technique that requires the vocalist to declaim the text more than to sing it; the rhythmic values are exact, but once the voice his the pitch, it must slide in either a downward or upward direction
Twelve-tone composition
a method of writing that employs each of the twelve notes of the chromatic scale set in a fixed, predetermined order
Russian Revolution
the overthrow of the Russian tsar by the socialist Bolshevik Party; was reflected in music
formalism
modern music that was branded as "antidemocratic: by Soviet authorities
polytonality
the simultaneous sounding of two or more keys
synthesizer
a machine that can create, transform, and combine sounds by means of electronic circuitry
electronic music
music produced by a synthesizer
Musique concrete
music in which the composer works with sounds found naturally in the everyday world
sampling
a technique whereby the rapper or producer extracts a small portion of prerecorded music and then mechanically repeats it over and over as a musical backdrop to the text they rap
scratching
a technique popular in rap and hip hop; a DJ manipulates the needles, scratching on the vinyl of the record
prepared piano
a grand piano outfitted with screws, bolts, washers, erasers, and bits of felt and plastic inserted between the strings; invented by John Cage
chance music
music in which musical events are not carefully predetermined by the composer, but come instead in an unpredictable sequence as the result of nonmusical decisions (e.g. tossing coins, throwing dice, or shuffling randomly the pages of music to be played); invented by John Cage
minimalism
a style of postmodern music that takes a very small musical unit and repeats it over and over to form a composition; Philip Glass was famous for this
verse and chorus
two subsections within a strophe of popular music
blues
a form of black folk song that originated in the South during the late 1800s; typical subjects are poverty loneliness, oppression, family troubles, infidelity, etc.
instrumental break
a way of replying to the cry of the voice in blues by inserting a short instrumental response at the end of each line
blues scale
a scale with seven notes used in blues music
blue notes
notes in the blues scale that are between flat and natural
jazz
a lively, energetic music with with syncopation and pulsating rhythms; usually played by several instruments with independent lines (polyphonic); includes and element of improvisation
ragtime
music that came right before jazz; shares many of the same rhythmic features of jazz
chorus
each presentation of the tune in a jazz piece
swing
a popular style of jazz played by a big band in the 1930s and 1940s
symphonic jazz
a fusion of jazz styles with the idioms and forms of classical music
Bebop
angular, hard-driving jazz played by a small combo without written music
standard
a tune so influential as to cause other musicians to record many other interpretations of it called "covers"
cool jazz
jazz that emphasized lyricism, lower instrumental registers, moderate tempos, and quieter dynamics
fusion
jazz music that incorporated elements of rock
Tin Pan Alley
a cluster of music stores in New York City; where the music industry in America was born
musical
a form of American popular musical theater that emerged shortly after 1900; most of the dialogue is spoken, but the emotional high points are sung
rhythm and blues
music that followed the twelve-bar blues chord progression, was set in 4/4, and featured expressive solo singing with a lively, upbeat aesthetic
rock
more sophisticated styles of music that emerged from rock 'n' roll after the The Beatles
punk rock
a rebellious style of rock developed in the in 1970s and exemplified by the Sex Pistols, the Ramones, and the Clash
grunge
a type of alternative rock, inspired by punk rock
rap
a style of popular music associated with hip hop that became popular in the 1980s, mostly among African Americans