30 terms

epidemiology and hospital acquired diseases

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Incubation
time between infected and symptoms, when microbes are establishing themselves, factors affecting growth
Prodromal
Feel like you're getting sick but don't show any signs or symptoms, its running its course and you feel crummy, time between infection and symptoms, don't know what is wrong but know something is wrong
Acute
period of invasion, showing signs and symptoms, when bacteria is multiplying
Convalescent
Where body gets better, and could take a short or a long time
Chronic infections
infected at low level over long period of time
latent infections
show symptoms, they leave and can come back. Example: herpes, TB, cold sores
Slow infections
lasts years to decades, symptoms slowly accumulate and get worse and worse
Opportunistic (2 categories)
Displaces normal Flora and immunodeficient / immunosupressed
Displaces normal Flora
blood and internal organs can lead to infection (to the site they don't belong) IV, bladder infections, feces get into urinary tract and cause UTI
Immunodeficient immunosuppressed patient
when someone becomes infected with an infection that usually doesn't cause a disease in a healthy person. (life-threatening) Ex: AIDs, transplant patient, chemo patient is susceptible to problems healthy people normally wouldn't be susceptible too.
mechanical vectors
the process by which a fly lands in dog poop and then lands in food humans eat
fly>poop>humans
biological vectors
the process by which west nile and malaria are transmitted through a mosquito bite
epidemiology
factors that influence the frequency and distribution of disease in a population (prevent diseases, control the spread, identify the disease)
responsibilities of epidemiologists
prevent diseases, control the spread, identify the disease
Morbidity
% of individuals who develop a disease
Mortality
% of individuals who die from a disease
endemic
background level, constant LOW-LEVEL number of cases in population, relative term, what is normal for a particular area- what you normally expect
enzootic
animal version of endemic
epidemic
OUTBREAK, number of cases rises significantly over background level, extremely high number of cases
epizootic
animal version of epidemic
pandemic
WORLD WIDE, epidemic- AIDs
sporadic
single or few cases, irregular, no pattern and is unpredictable
zoonosis
animal contact
vertical transmission
mother to child
horizontal transmission
you get it from another infected person, being sneezed on, sex, touching
fetal teratogenicity
causes defects in child
droplet nuclei
dried MO's, bacteria that exists your nose and mouth when you sneeze or cough
fomites
inanimate objects, anything you touch, doorknobs, light switches, telephones, pencils
nosocomial infection
acquired at a hospital or nursing home. iatrogenic- treatment induced from care worker
common modes of transmission of nosocomial infections
1. improper hand-washing
2. Strict isolation: very careful, severe infection, strict access to patients room with gloves, gowns, masks, because patient has deadly disease.
3. protective isolation: protect them from our MO's, transplants, AIDs,
4.Precaution isolations: according to the disease, prevent cross infection
5. Quarantine: when infected person shows no signs or symptoms after being exposed, and must be kept in isolation until no longer infectious