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52 terms

Lecture Exam I- Blood

Source: Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory Maual (7th edition) by: Elaine N. Mariab
nonliving matrix that makes up our blood in which living cells are suspended. 55% of our blood
formed elements
living cells in our blood. makes up 45% of our blood
red blood cells, or RBCs. most numberour of the three types of formed elements present inour blood. Sacs of hemoglobin molecules that transport the bulk of oxygen carried in the blood, as well as a small percentage of the carbon dioxide. 4-6 million/mm^3
white blood cells, or WBC, form in the bone marrow and are part of the body's nonspecific defenses and the immune system
WBCs ability to move in and out of blood vessels
amoeboid motion
WBC's ability to wander through body tissue to get to the sites of inflammation or tissue destruction
WBCs that contain granules in their cytoplasm which stain differently. There are three types of these granular leukocytes.
most abundant WBC, most abundant granulocyte. The nucleus is multilobed and the pale lilac cytoplasm contains fine cytoplasmic granules. They function as an active phagocyte; their numbers increase exponentially during acute infections.
4th most abundant WBC, 2nd most abundant granulocyte, represents 2-4% of the leukocyte population. The nucleus is often bi-lobed, the cytoplasm and the granules change a red or orange color due to the acid dyes in the Wright stain. They play an active role in counterattacking parasitic worms, lessen allergy attacks
least abundant WBC, least abundant granulocyte representing less that 1% of the population. The nucleus is a large U-shaped nucleus and the cytoplasm contains coarse, sparse granules that are stained deep purple. The granules contain chemicals like histamine, which helps to mediate the inflammatory response.
WBCs that contain no visible cytoplasmic granules. Although they are found in the bloodstream, they are much more abundant in lymphoid tissue
2nd most abundant WBC, most abundant agranulocyte, 20-45% found in WBC sample. The nucleus is stained dark blue to purple, generally spherical, and accounts for most of the cell mass. Involves immunological responses in the body. There are six types of lymphocytes (T lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, ...)
3rd most abundant WBC, 2nd most abundant agranulocyte which is 2-8% of WBCs. The largest of the leukocytes. The nucleus is dark blue and kidney shaped, the cytoplasm stains a grey-blue. Once in the tissue, they convert into large macrophages and their numbers dramatically increase during chronic infections,
One of the formed elements present in our blood. They function in hemostasis (blood clot formation). They are cell fragments of large multinucleate cells (megakaryocytes) formed in the bone marrow. They appear to be irregular, darkly stained shapes. They are instrumental in the clotting process that occurs when blood vessels are ruptures.
Total WBC/RBC count
a test sample which determines the total number of that cell type per unit volume of blood
abnormally high WBC count. This could indicate bacterial/viral infection, metabolic disease, hemmorage, or poisoning by drugs or chemicals
a decrease in WBC number. This could indicate typhoid fever, measles, infectious hepatitis or cirrhosis, tuberculosis, or excessive antibiotic or X-ray therapy. This person with lack the usual protective mechanisms.
A disorder of the lymphoid tissue characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of abnormal WBCs accompanied by a reduction in the number of RBCs and platelets.
An increase in the number of RBCs. This could be due to cancer or from living at high altitudes where less oxygen is available.
A decrease in the number of RBCs. This results in a decrease in oxygen carrying capacity due to a decrease in the number of RBCs or a RBC size decrease or a decreased hemoglobin content of the RBCs
Differential WBC count
100 WBC are counted and classified according to type. This helps to indicate any abnormality or significant increase or decrease in the percentages of WBCs
AKA packed cell volume (PCV) and is the equivalent to the RBC volume. Normal levels for men are 47 +/- 7, and women are 42 +/- 5
sedimentation rate
The speed at which RBCs settle to the bottom of a tube when allowed to stand. The size and number of RBCs affects packing phase.
Rouleaux formation
the alignment of RBCs like a stack of pennies.
bleeding time
how long the bleeding lasts. This test is used to test the ability of platelets to stop bleeding in capillaries and small vessels. If the bleeding is prolonged, it is commonly accosiated with deficient or abnormal platelets.
aka blood clotting. A protective mechanism that minimizes blood loss when blood vessels are ruptured. Phase of hemostasis which the platelet plug changes into a blood clot, it is done by clotting factors.
tissue factor (TF) and PF^3
released by injured tissues and platelets which preceeds hemostasis which trigger the clotting mechanism or cascade. They interact with other blood clotting factors and calcium ions to form the prothrombin activator --> converts prothrombin ---> thrombin which acts to polymerize the fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin
aka agglutinogens. specific glycoproteins on the outer surface of the RBC plasma membrane, they are genetically predetermined
AKA agglutinins. Plasma proteins which accompany antigens. They can react with RBCs causing them to be clumped, agglutinated, and eventually hemolyzed, which explains the importance of blood transfusions
The disease process in which the body's vessles become increasingly occluded by plaques. The plaques narrow the arteries and can contribute to hypertensive heart disease
nonspecific immune response
not directed at particular virus. It is a general response that includes: inflammartion, phagocytes, immunological surveillance, and interferons
specific immune response
a specific immune response to target a particular bacteria, type of virus, toxic chemical, cancer cell, fungu, parasite, ....
Buffy coat
When a sample of blood separates, this layer is composed opf leukocytes and platelets
most abundant plasma protein, 60% of the total protein, made by the liver, plays an important role in osmotic balance, contributes to the viscosity of blood, transportation of lipids/hormones/calcium..., and helps to maintain pH
makes 35% of the plasma proteins, involved in the transport and protection. there are alpha, beta, and gamma globulins
4% of the total plasma, used in blood clotting, and changes to fibrin when blood clots
to make formed elements of the blood
to make red blood cells
to make white blood cells
to make platelets
hemoglobin with oxygen bound to it. bright red color, 1-4 oxygen bound to it.
hemoglobin with no oxygen bound to it, a dull red color.
RBC turnover
continuous process of blood cells becoming fragile, and being replaced by bone marrow.
Vascular spasm
important phase that platelets play in blood clotting which helps to prevent blood loss by the contraction of the smooth muscle lining the vessels
Platelet plug formation
important phase that platelets play in blood clotting in which the opening is physically blocked because the platelets stick to each other and release chemicals which cause more platelets to stick
Extrinsic pathway
process of hemostasis or blood clotting which is activated by Factor III, tissue thromboplastin, when the tissue is injured
Common pathway
a process of blood clotting that is activated by the Stuart Prower, Factor X
The fluid that comes out as the clot is being retracted
a chemical released by basophil which plays an important role in inflammation. It increases the blood flow to the inflammed area and produces the cardinal signs of inflammation (heat, swelling, and redness)
a chemical released by basophil which plays an important role in inflammation. It acts as a natural blood thinner, which prevents blood clots
breakdown of a clot
intrinsic pathway
the process of forming a clot that doesn't require any tissue damage. The presence of platelets + Facrot XII + "activators" is enough to start this pathway.