Biol 1611 Midterm

Know what we talked about regarding Charles Darwin.
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What did C. Mervin Palmer do in 1969?Defined a set of algae and their effects on polluting the environment in certain concentrationsUnderstand how algae were counted and scored (Pollution Index Values) from Lab 2.Water was examined in a slide under a microscope, the number of algae was counted and the unit/mL was determined, which led to using the Palmer scores to determined pollution of a body of waterUnderstand how Palmer scores were determined and what they mean.They are an indicator of how much organic pollution an environment has(0-10 = low, 10-15 = moderate, 15-20 = high)What contributes to the identification of polluted water with reference to algae?Algae are good indicators for pollution because they rapidly respond to pollutants and quickly absorb organic and inorganic pollutants. Basically, more organic pollutants cause more algae to form since there is more "food" for them.Review the algae we observed and be able to identify them at least by their major types...colonial, filamentous, unicellular motile, unicellular nonmotile)Colonial = Scenedesmus, Pediastrum, Staurastrum, Pandoria Filamentous = Bulbochoate, Oscillatoria, Stigeoclonium Unicellular motile = Euglena, Chlamydomonas, Phacus Unicellular non-motile = Microasteria, Closterium, Staurastrum, Chlorella, Synedra, NaviculaWhat are the three Domains? What differentiates the organisms in these Domains?Bacteria - no nucleus, peptidoglycan cell wall Archaea - no nucleus, no peptidoglycan cell wall Eukaryota - has a nucleusKnow the key traits of our "5" Kingdoms (3 Domains, "4" Kingdoms)Protista - most simple eukaryotic organism(usually unicellular) Plantae - producers, generally photoautotrophic organisms that do photosynthesis Fungi - decomposers that break dorm decaying matter and use spores for reproduction Animalia - Essentially all complex animals or multicellular animalsBe familiar with these traits as they apply to the organisms we "tested" in our lab exercise.Traits were used to help create a phylogeny treeIdentify apomorphic groups (monophyletic groups)Groups that share the most recent common ancestor on a phylogeny treeDefinition and application of Parsimony (be able to select the most parsimonious tree when given a choice).Tree with fewest assumptions of character change is most optimal treePhotoreception in:How a plant specifically detects sunlightChlamydomonas (whole organism)Has an eyespot and rotates its body to detect lightMarchantia (Tissue level)Not 100% sure but perhaps uses pores for light detection?The leaf (organ level)This is the primary photosynthetic part of the plant and has chloroplasts for light detectionGross morphologygeneral description of structures of an organism without specific identificationLeaf partsBlade(actual leaf) and petiole(stalk that supports and connects leaf to stem)Blade/Lamina. Petiole, Axil, Axillary budsParts of a stem/branchDifferences in marginsLobed(has lobes sticking out each side), Entire(smooth single leaf with nothing sticking out), Serrate(has forward pointing "teeth" on the sides)Differences in venationParallel(monocots) and reticulate(branched pattern in dicots)The pattern of arrangement of the stem axisAlternate(leaf on each side in alternating pattern), Opposite(leaves directly on the other side of each other on the steam), whorled(3 or more leaves at a node)Leaf type (simple vs. compound, etc.)Simple(one leaf on one side), Pinnately compound(leaflets arranged along the middle vein), Palmately compound leaf(leaflets radiating outwards from end of petiole), Doubly compound(leafs arranged in sets of 2 along the middle vein)Monocot and Dicot: Be able to identify the following in both of these:Epidermal layers, stomata, vascular tissues, mesophyll layersEpidermal layers (upper vs. lower)Monocot(lower+upper epidermis, xylem, phloem, guard cells, mesophyll) Dicot(multi-layer cortex, parenchyma, endodermis(inner layer of cortex))StomataMonocot(guard cells are dumbbell-shaped) Dicot(guard cells are bean shaped)Vascular tissueMonocot(Actatostele - random arrangement of vascular bundles) Dicot(Eustele - circular ring arrangement of vascular bundles) Monocots have a pith and dicots don'tMesophyll layersMonocots(one layered mesophyll) Dicot(two layered mesophyll)Leaf TypesMonocots(parallel venation) Dicots(reticulate venation)HydrophyticAquatic plants adapted to aquatic environmentsMesophyticTerrestrial plants adapted to a neither dry or very wet environmentXerophyticType of plant that lives in extreme conditions(cactus)Needle-type leaf anatomy (x.s.)Not exactly sure about this one but it is generally pine leaves that have needles which remain on the tree year-aroundLeaf plasticityAbility of a leaf to change its phenotype in different environmentsSun leaf (x.s.), and whole leaf shape.Thicker than shade leaves due to thicker cuticles and longer palisade cells.Shade leaf (x.s.), and whole leaf shape.Generally larger in area but thinner than sun leaves. Shade leafs have more chloroplasts to maximize light collection due to their locationStomatal DensityNumber of stomata per unit areaWhat is the function/structure of the stomata?Site of gas exchange(co2 and o2) in plants and are structured like a pore with special parenchyma cells called guard cellsHow is stomatal density determined?Calculate area of field of view under microscope Determine mean number of stomata in that area Divide mean number of stomata by area of field of viewWhat does stomatal density indicate about the plant/leaf?Determines whether it is a shade or sun leaf since shade leaves have more stomata on averageKnow the stem and root cell types and fiber types.Parenchyma(flexible fibers than can differentiate and divide with no secondary cell wall) Collenchyma(Generally cells for primary growth) Sclerenchyma(thick cell with thick secondary wall made of lignin)Identify primary dicot shoot tissues (stem plus leaves)Pericycle, cortex, endodermis, epidermisDicot stem (x.s.)multicellular stem hair, epidermis with cuticle, vascular bundles in ring(eustele)Monocot stem (x.s.)hollow at center with pith, vascular bundles randomly arranged(atactostele)Monocot stem (l.s.) (compare xylem and phloem)Xylem is thicker than phloem and both are found in the pith of a monocotIdentify primary structures of both monocot and dicot rootsMonocots(Have a fibrous root system with no main root) Dicots(Taproot root system with a main root)Parts of anatomy of a stemCambium, epidermis, cortex, pith, xylem, phloem, stele, vascular cylinder, root hair, endodermis, pericycle.Secondary growth of stems (dicot only)Roots grow wider and the woody stem develops with a peridermIdentify tree age as well as severe environmental conditions by using tree rings (dendrochronology and dendroclimatology). Know other types of annual layers.Each ring represents one year of growthThe FlowerTheir main purpose is for reproduction. The flower consists of sepals and petals and also holds the stamen and pistols.Monocot vs. Dicot (Trimerous vs. Tetramerous vs. Pentamerous)Monocot(Trimerous - Have 3 sets of sepals, petals) Dicots(Tetramerous + Pentamerous - 4 or 5 sets of sepals,petals)Flower dissection. Identify parts (sepals/calyx; petals/corolla; stamens/androecium; carpels/gynoecium).Make sure to know what these areInflorescencecluster of flowers in a branch of set of branches for a flowering plantPetaloidSomething that looks like a flower petalThe SeedThe plant structure that contains a young plant inside a protective coveringParts of Monocot cross sectionSeed coat, cotyledons, epicotyl/plumule/radicle/embryonic rootParts of Dicot Cross SectionThe seed coat, cotyledon, epicotyl/plumule (embryonic shoot), Radicle (embryonic root), Endosperm, and coleoptile.Seeds (ovule), fruit (ovary)Ovule(has the megaspore which becomes the megagamete) Ovary(contains the ovules and turns into the fruit)Stage of embryo development of Capsella (a dicot)Globular Heart Torpedo MatureIdentify parts of a cross-section of CapsellaSuspensor, Cotyledons, apical meristem of root, apical meristem of shoot, hypocotyl-root axisC4 vs. C3 Leaf AnatomyC3(have mesophyll cells and no bundle sheath cells) C4(Kranz-Type Anatomy - vascular bundle surrounded by bundle sheath cells)