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75 terms

11th grade- physical science: MAIA

STUDY
PLAY
motion
a natural event that involves a change in the position or location of something
speed
distance traveled per unit time
average speed
a rate of motion determined by dividing the total distance traveled by the total travel time
instantaneous speed
The speed at any given point in time
velocity
Speed in a given direction.
slope
the steepness of a line on a graph, equal to its vertical change divided by its horizontal change
plate tectonics
the study of large scale movement and deformation of the earth's outer layers in terms of rigid plates over a partly molten layer of the upper mantle
acceleration
The rate at which velocity changes
Force
a push or pull exerted on an object
Net Force
The overall force on an object when all the individual forces acting on it are added together
Friction
the force that opposes the motion of one surface as it moves across another surface
Gravity
the force that pulls objects toward each other
Mass
a body of matter without definite shape
Weight
the vertical force exerted by a mass as a result of gravity
Free Fall
the motion of a falling object when the only force acting on it is gravity
Terminal velocity
the constant velocity of a falling object when the force of air resistance is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force of gravity
projectile
an object thrown into the air with great force
inertia
the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion
momentum
the product of a body's mass and its velocity
conservation of momentum
Momentum of a system remains constant when there are no net external forces acting on it.
satellite
any celestial body orbiting around a planet or star
centripetal force
any force that causes an object to move in a circular path
pressure
the force applied to a unit area of surface
fluid
a continuous amorphous substance that tends to flow and to conform to the outline of its container: a liquid or a gas
buoyant force
upward force exerted on an object immersed in a fluid
density
mass divided by volume
Archimedes principle
the buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object
Hydraulic system
a system that multiplies force by transmitting pressure from a small surface area through a confined fluid to a larger surface area
Work
Force x Distance
Power
(physics) the rate of doing work
Machine
any mechanical or electrical device that transmits or modifies energy to perform or assist in the performance of human tasks
Mechanical advantage
the number of times that a machine increases an input force
efficiency of machines
A comparison of the output work to the input work
Energy
The capacity to do work or to produce heat
Kinetic energy
the energy of motion
potential energy
the energy that an object has because of the position, shape, or condition of the object
types of energy
radiant energy, chemical energy, mechanical energy, electrical and thermal energy, nuclear energy
matter
that which has mass and occupies space
fossil fuel
a nonrenewable energy resource formed from the remains of organisms that lived long ago; examples include oil, coal, and natural gas
combustion
a process in which a substance reacts with oxygen to give heat and light
temperature
A measure of the average energy of motion of the particles of a substance
absolute zero
The coldest temperature, 0 Kelvin, that can be reached. It is the hypothetical temperature at which all molecular motion stops.
heat
the movement of thermal energy from a substance at a higher temperature to one at a lower temperature
specific heat
the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance 1 degree Celsius
Conduction
the direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that it is touching
Convection
the transfer of heat by the movement of currents within a fluid
Radiation
the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves
Conductor
a device designed to transmit electricity, heat, etc.
Insulator
a material that does not allow heat or electrons to move through it easily.
change of state
The conversion of a substance from one physical form to another
thermal expansion
The increase in volume of a substance due to an increase in temperature
engine
motor that converts thermal energy to mechanical work
refrigerator
a device that uses outside energy source to transfer thermal energy from a cool area to a warm area
Magnet
(physics) a device that attracts iron and produces a magnetic field
magnetic pole
one of the two ends of a magnet where the magnetism seems to be concentrated
magnetic field lines
Invisible lines that map out the magnetic field around a magnet
Atom
smallest particle of an element
Compass
an instrument for showing directions, consisting of a needle or compass card that points to the north magnetic pole, which is near the North Pole.
Solar Wind
continuous stream of high-energy particles released into space in all direction from the sun's corona
Electric field
the region around a charged object where the object's electric force interacts with other charged objects
electric current
the continuous flow of electric charges through a material
electric circuit
a complete, unbroken path through which electric charges can flow
conductor
a substance that readily conducts e.g. electricity and heat
insulator
a material through which electric current DOES NOT pass easily
voltage
the difference in electrical charge between two points in a circuit expressed in volts
resistance
an electrical device that resists the flow of electrical current
battery
A source of stored chemical energy for electric currents, having a positive (+) and a negative (-) terminal.
series circuit
a circuit in which all parts are connected in a single loop
parallel circuit
a closed electrical circuit in which the current is divided into two or more paths and then returns via a common path to complete the circuit
Ammeter
a device used to measure current in a circuit
Voltmeter
a device used to measure voltage, or electrical potential energy difference
Electrical power
the product of voltage and current
short circuit
a connection that allows current to take an unintended path
fuse
electrical device that can interrupt the flow of electrical current when it is overloaded
circuit breaker
a device that trips like a switch and opens the circuit when overloaded