A term used to describe the polarization of the world's population into 'haves' and 'have-nots'.
Unofficial forms of employment that are not easily made subject to government regulation or taxation.
Example of affirmative action in support of women's right to an education.
Malala Yousafzai, Swat Valley, Pakistan.
Examples of affirmative actions in support of disabled people's participation in sports.
UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, Paralympic Games (from 1960).
Examples of indigenous people's access to land and resources.
The Brazilian government's National Indian Foundation (FUNAI) and court cases in Canada have gradually helped to define and protect the land rights of indigenous First Nations people.
Ethnic groups who have enjoyed the uninterrupted occupation of a place for long periods of time (predating any arrival of more recent migrants).
Affirmative action by TNCs to help close the development gap.
Apple trying to tackle LGBT prejudice in the workplace; a few have openly gay senior managers, including Apple's CEO Tim Cook.
Social entrepreneurship approaches
A way of trying to meet human development goals, which draws on business techniques and principles (bottom-up).
The best-known provider of microloans
Grameen Bank in Bangladesh
The first Fairtrade and Fairmined conventional mining organization to be certified in 2011.
Cotapata Mining Co-operative in Bolivia
Corporate social responsibility
Recognizing that companies should behave in moral and ethical ways towards people and places as part of their business model.
TNCs with strict codes of practice which prohibit worker exploitation in 1) their offshored facilities 2) their first tier of outsourcing suppliers.
Apple and Fender
This was introduced by TNCs after the collapse of the Rana Plaza building in 2013.
Accord on Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh
Products of mining industries sourced from conflict zones whose production may have involved slave labour.
An example of (government) forced compliance: it is a 'top-down' approach to corporate social responsibility.
Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform Act of 2010 (USA)
Culture can be broken down into individual component parts, such as the clothing people wear or their language.
The shared identity of an ethnic group, which may be based on common ancestral roots or cultural characteristics such as language, religion, diet or clothing.
An individual or society's sense of attachment to one or more places.
The level of heterogeneity (difference) exhibited by a community in terms of ethnicity, religion, language or other defining cultural traits.
A shared sense of belonging at the planetary scale that is demonstrated through common ways of communicating, consuming media and food, dressing or behaving (including shared social norms such as a commitment to upholding human rights).
The imposition and adoption of US cultural traits and values at a global scale.
The imposition and adoption of a combination of European and North American cultural traits and values at a global scale.
A cultural process that involves different communities mixing over time to form a more uniform culture which combines traits drawn from the traditions of each of the original communities.
A cultural landscape constructed by a minority ethnic group, such as a migrant population.
This theory proposes that the relevance and power of countries will reduce over time.
The practice of promoting the culture/ language of one nation in another.
The ability of a powerful state or player to influence outcomes without reverting to 'hard power' tactics such as military force.
When a new culture develops, whose traits combine two or more different sets of influences.
A modern landscape of tower blocks and offices that incorporates state-of-the-art architecture, and which is usually designed to impress by reaching greater heights than the surrounding district.
From the Greek word meaning 'to scatter,' this is defined as a community of people who do not live in their country of origin, but maintain their heritage in a new land.