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Terms in this set (159)
A sentence of imprisonment that is suspended or a court- ordered period of correctional supervision in the community, generally as an alternative to incarceration is known as:
A court order taking away a convicted offenders probationary status and usually withdrawing the conditional freedom associated with the status is response to a violation of the conditions of probation is known as:
A wide range of sentences that depend on correctional resources available in the community is known as:
The managed return to the community of individuals released from prison is known as:
Humphrey Fish is arrested for DWI and pleads guilty in court. The judge orders him to abide by certain conditions including abstaining from alcohol, maintaining employment, get alcohol counseling and remaining within the jurisdiction. He will have to report to an officer once a month to monitor his progress. This is an example of:
The first probation officer discussed in class was a shoemaker fro Boston who lived 1784-1859 whose name was:
T/F The two types of conditions for probation are general and specific
The two models for offenders to get paroled are:
Parole boards and statutory decree
A court requirement that an alleged or convicted offender pay money or provide services to the victim of the crime or provide services to the community is known as:
A sentence that requires that a convicted offender serve weekends (or other specified periods of time) in a confinement facility (usually a jail) while undergoing probationary supervision in the community is known as:
Which of the following is NOT one of the prison eras discussed in class?
A state or federal confinement facility that has custodial authority over adults sentenced to confinement is known as:
An imprisonment strategy that is based on the desire to prevent recurrent crime and that has abandoned all hope of rehabilitation is known as:
The number of inmates a prison can handle, according to experts, is known as:
The size of the correctional population an institution can effectively hold is known as:
A policy of seeking to identify the most dangerous criminals with the goal of removing them from society via incapacitation is known as:
T/F The typical prison in America is maximum security
minimum or medium
Which of the following is NOT one of the purposes of jail?
holding individuals for long periods of confinement
A jail that is built and run using the combined resources of a variety of local jurisdiction is a:
What is the acronym used by the federal government to denote ultra high security prisons?
An enclosed facility separated from society both socially and physically, where the inhabitants share all aspects of their daily lives is known as a:
The process whereby newly institutionalized offenders come to accept prison lifestyles and criminal values is known as:
The slang that is characteristic of prison subculture and prison life is known as:
Which of the following are things prisoners are deprived of?
All of the above
-Goods and services
-Hetero sexual relationships
Which of the following is NOT one of the inmate types discussed in class?
T/F "PREA" stands for Prison Rape Elimination Act
When considering the tasks of correctional staff, which of the following is a major concern that leads to institutionalized procedures for ensuring security in most facilities?
Custody and Control
Women's most common pathways to crime involve survival strategies resulting from:
All of the above
The Aryan Brotherhood, NETA, and the Nazi Lowriders are gangs who act together and pose a threat to the safety of corrections staff and prey on other inmates and are referred to by corrections officials as:
Security threat groups
T/F One cause of the "graying" prison population is the general aging of the US population
A youth at or below the upper age of juvenile court jurisdiction in a particular state is known as a:
Juvenile actions or conduct in violation of criminal law, juvenile status offenses and other juvenile misbehavior is known as:
A common law principle that allows the state to assume a parental role and to take custody of a delinquent child is known as:
An act or conduct that is declared by statute to be an offense, but only when committed by or engaged in by a juvenile, and that can be adjudicated only in juvenile court is known as:
T/F Most jurisdictions have statutes designed to extend Miranda provisions to juveniles.
The fact finding process wherein the juvenile court determines whether there is sufficient evidence to sustain the allegations in a petition is known as:
An alternative approach to juvenile justice in which alleged offenders are judged and/or sentenced by a jury of their peers is known as:
Which of the following are differences between a juvenile and adult trial?
All of the above
-Emphasis on privacy
The final stage in the processing of adjudicated juveniles in which a decision is made on the form or treatment or penalty that should be imposed on the child is called a:
The two main sources of criminal justice data in the United States are:
Uniform Crime Report & National Crime Victimization Survey
T/F Our definition of a crime is an act prohibited or an omission required by law
Which of the following is a trial in which the judge determines guilt of innocence?
T/F The four sources of criminal law discussed in class were constitutions, statutes, court decisions & administrative regulations
The model of criminal justice that assumes the various parts of the justice system work together by design to achieve a wider purpose of justice is called the:
"Facts and Circumstances that would lead a reasonable person to believe a crime has been or is about to be committed" is our definition of:
T/F Crime rates are a more reliable way to measure crime than raw numbers.
A classification scheme used in the study and description of criminal behavior is known as a:
T/F The burden of proof in a civil case is proof beyond a reasonable doubt.
The burden of proof in a civil case is "a preponderance of the evidence"
Crime fighting strategies that have been scientifically tested and are based on social science research are known as:
Evidence Based practices
Bernie Madoff's operation of a Ponzi Scheme is an example of?
White collar crime
T/F Civil justice consists of activities and procedures having to do with private rights and relationships.
Most aggravated assaults are committed with:
T/F The USA has three levels of criminal justice; local, state & federal.
The USA has two levels of criminal justice; state & federal
Which major crime has the highest clearance rate?
T/F The three types of damages in civil cases are actual, compensatory & punitive.
The Latin term that demonstrates facts that show a crime has occurred is:
Jurisdiction, vagueness, & repeal/amendment of a statute are examples of:
Limits on criminal law
The scientific study of the causes and prevention of crime and the rehabilitation and punishment of offenders is known as:
T/F Transnational organized crime is unlawful activity that is undertaken and supported by organized crime groups across state lines.
across national lines
Cookie Cutter is arrested by the police when she attempts to enter an empty, locked house by breaking open a window. She later confesses to having done so with the intent of stealing personal items from the house. Cookie is most likely to be charged with:
T/F "Mala in se" means "wrong because the law says so"
"mala in se" means"wrong in itself"
The Crime Control Model emphasizes:
The efficient arrest & conviction of criminal justice offenders
The two main goals of due process are:
Accuracy & fairness
T/F The two main types of criminal law discussed in class were substantive and procedural criminal law.
The only crime mentioned in the Constitution of the United States is:
T/F UCR Part I offenses are those crimes which have to occur first in order to charge people with more serious crimes.
Part I offenses are the worst crimes
The Latin term meaning "guilty mind" is:
The three main categories of crime discussed in class were:
Felonies, misdemeanors & infractions/offenses
Which part of the law specifies the methods to be used in enforcing substantive law?
Crimes against the elderly, crimes against women, stalking & hate crimes fall under which of the following:
The M'Naghten Rule is used to determine which of the following?
A criminal defendant's mental state
T/F Jurisprudence is part of the law that defines crimes and punishments.
T/F The insanity defense is used often and is usually successful.
Ex Post Facto means:
After the fact
What period of american history was NOT associated with an increase in crime?
Post World War II- 1960's
T/F A common law and constitutional prohibition against a second trial for the same offense is known as double jeopardy.
The primary purpose of tort law is to:
Compensate the plaintiff
The Latin term that means the rule of precedent of judges following previous decisions is known as:
T/F A criminal offense punishable by death or incarceration in a prison facility for at least one year is known as a misdemeanor.
known as a felony
Three main problems with early policing discussed in class were:
Low pay, disrespect, ineffectiveness
In the 1900s, the criteria for selection of police officers discussed in class were:
Physical fitness and a political influence
Which policing strategy emphasizes an increased capacity to deal with crimes that are not well controlled by traditional methods?
Evidence of relevance to a criminal investigation that is NOT readily seen by the unaided eye is known as latent evidence
The special responsibility to adhere to moral duty and obligation that is inherent in police work is known as:
T/F College educated police officers are found to be more authoritarian than the police officers without a college education.
police officers without a college education are more authoritarian
T/F Effects of police stress can include: psychological problems, drug/alcohol abuse, family problems, and PTSD
Which US Supreme Court case discussed in class addressed the good faith exception to the exclusionary rule?
US vs Leon
T/F The three tenets of community policing discussed in class were: using a problem solving approach, being service oriented, encouraging officers use of discretion.
Researchers have concluded that police subculture in the US is unlikely to change:
From within the police department
T/F The two main divisions of authority in police agencies are line and staff operations.
Jake and Mary are married and own their own home. The police come to the house and ask for permission to search the house for drugs. Jake gives his consent to the search, but Mary says no because she has hidden some drugs in the kitchen. The police come in and search, over Mary's objection, since Jake said it was okay. They find Mary's drugs. Which of the following is legally correct in the ensuing trial?
The drugs cannot be used in trial because she did not consent to the search
Most due process requirements of relevance to the police pertain to which three major areas?
Evidence & investigation, arrest and interrogation
The two cases discussed in class that related to the exclusionary rule were:
Mapp vs Ohio & Weeks vs US
Which US Supreme Court case has become the basis for stop and frisk?
Terry vs Ohio
T/F The legal definition of a "frisk" is "a patting down of the outer clothing of a suspect based upon reasonable suspicion, designed to locate contraband or criminal evidence while questioning a suspect"
not aloud to be questioned
T/F A legal principle that excludes from introduction at trial any evidence later developed as a result of an illegal search or seizure is known as "fruit of the poisoned tree"
A warrantless search of an arrested individual conducted to ensure the safety of the arresting officer is known as:
Search incident to arrest
T/F The "New Police" were immediately popular with the citizens of London because now they knew they would be safe
were not very popular
A form of police corruption involving the failure to perform a legal duty is known as:
A form of policing corruption involving the failure to perform a legal duty in a proper manner is known as:
A form of police corruption involving the commission of an illegal act is known as:
Which of the following is one of the ways to prevent individual corruption discussed in class?
All of the above
-Periodic retraining of all police
-more exhaustive background checks of recruits
-measures aimed at enhancing professionalism and breaking the code of silence
T/F The three main areas of the dangers of police work discussed in class were violence in the line of duty, risk of disease and infected evidence, stress and fatigue among police officers
T/F The two primary sources of police stress discussed in class were the nature of police work and family problems
nature of police work and department practices
Which of the following is the collection and analysis of information to produce intelligence end product designed to inform police decision making at both the tactical and strategical levels?
Intelligence led policing
T/F The main purpose of the Miranda warnings is to give crime suspects extra time to think about their situation and whether or not they want to confess
advises of their rights
In the context of the police use of force continuum, which is the first (lowest) of the five levels?
A particular set of values, beliefs, and acceptable forms of behavior with which the police profession strives to imbue new recruits is known as:
The police subculture
The three police personality aspects discussed in class were:
Danger, isolation, and authority
The branch of a police organization tasked with investigating charges of wrongdoing involving members of the department is known as:
T/F Most people take advantage of their rights to remain silent and have counsel present.
The information gathering activity of police that involves direct questioning of suspects is:
The case that requires advisement of rights due criminal suspects by the police before questioning begins is:
Miranda vs Arizona
T/F The two elements required for Miranda warnings are 1.custodial 2.interrogation
T/F The mutual pledge systems was a system of community self-responsibility that existed in Britain in the Middle Ages in which resident were held responsible for the conduct of their neighbors
The opportunity of law enforcement officers to exercise choice in their duties is:
The Kansas City Experiment was regarding:
T/F The military model is well suited for police work
T/F Span of control means how many suspects an individual police officer can manage at one time
The US dual court system is compromised of what two types of courts?
Federal and State courts
An informal hearing place designed to mediate interpersonal disputes without resorting to the more formal arrangements of a criminal trial court is known as:
Dispute Resolution Center
Which of the following notifies witnesses that they are to appear in court to testify?
Which of the following scenarios would most likely to be resolved in a community court?
Lady Gaga vandalizing homes in her neighborhood
T/F Nolo Contendere means "No plea at this time"
The money or property pledged to the court or actually deposited with the court to effect the release of a person from legal custody is known as:
The territory, subject matter, or people over which a court or other justice agency may exercise lawful authority, as determined by statue or constitution is known as:
The person in the courtroom responsible for sentencing offenders is the?
The person in court who argues in favor of a conviction is the?
The person in court who tests the strength of prosecution's case is the?
A law intended to prevent the pretrial release of criminal defendants judged to represent a danger to others in the community is known as:
Which of the following terms refers to the issue of whether the defendant is actually responsible for the crime of which he/she stands accused?
The two sided structure under which American criminal trial courts operate that pits the prosecution against the defense in theory, justice is done when the more effective adversary is able to convince the judge or jury that his or her perspective on the case is the correct one is known as?
Who is responsible for summoning members of the public for jury duty and subpoenaing witnesses for the prosecution and the defense?
The clerk of the court
The federal speedy trial act allows for the dismissal of charges when the prosecution does not seek indictment within 30 days of arrest, or when a trial does not begin within ____ working days after indictment?
Something that is not based on the personal knowledge of a witness is know as:
The degree to which a particular item of evidence is useful in, and relevant to, proving something important in a trial is known as:
A formal written accusation submitted to the court by a grand jury, alleging that a specified person has committed a specified offense, usually a felony, is known as an:
A jury that is isolated from the public during the course of a trial and throughout the deliberation process is a:
Which of the following refers to the lawful authority of a court to hear or to act on a case from its beginning and to pass judgment on the law and the facts?
The three levels of state court systems are:
Trial courts, appellate courts, state supreme courts
Legislative courts are courts that are created by?
T/F One situation where the US Supreme Court must rule is when an act of Congress has been found unconstitutional in a lower federal court.
Which of the following is NOT one of the four purposes of the first appearance?
To allow defendants the opportunity to have access to exhibits of evidence
Which of the following terms describes the release of an accused person from custody upon his or her promise to appear in court as required?
R.O.R. stands for??
Release on Recognizance
Which of the following is NOT one of the goals of contemporary sentencing discussed in class?
T/F Specific deterrence is aimed at preventing future crimes by those who have committed crimes before.
In the context of the death penalty, which of the following arguments reflects the retentionist position?
The death penalty provides a sense of closure to the victims
T/F Concurrent sentencing means serving multiple sentences at the same time
T/F Consecutive sentencing means serving multiple sentencing all in a row
T/F An indeterminate sentence is a fixed term ex. 5yrs, 10yrs
5-10yrs its a range
T/F A determinate sentence is a range of time ex. 5-10yrs
a fixed term 5yrs, 10yrs
The two fundamental sentencing principles discussed in class were:
Proportionality and equity
The use of court ordered community service, home detention, day reporting, drug treatment, psychological counseling, victim/offender mediation are examples of:
Which of the following is NOT one of the alternative sentences discussed in class:
The death penalty
A model of criminal justice punishment that includes determinate and commission created presumptive sentencing schemes as well as voluntary/advisory sentencing guidelines is:
A goal of criminal sentencing that attempts to make the victim "whole again" is known as:
A model of criminal justice sentencing that holds that criminal offenders deserve the punishment they receive at the hands of the aw and that punishments should be appropriate to the type and severity of the crime committed is known as:
The act of relapsing into a problem or criminal behavior during or after receiving sanctions, or while undergoing an intervention due to a previous behavior or crime is known as:
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