Kingdom equivalent to Domain Arachaea Prokaryotes Chemically unique cell wall and membranes Unique genetic system. Genetic system similar to eukaryotes May have evolved into eukaryotes Often, but not always extremophiles
Taxonomic category Contains orders with common characteristics
Kingdom equivalent to Domain Bacteria Prokaryotes Strong exterior cell wall Unique genetic system Same Cell membrane lipid as most eukaryotes No internal compartments classified by shape, nature of cell wall, metabolism, or how they attain nutrients
Domain with four kingdoms Organisms made up of eukaryotic cells Eukaryotic cells have complex internal structures which allow them to become larger than the earliest cells and enabled evolution of multi-cellular life
taxonomic category below order and above genus Humans belong to family Hominidae
A subgroup within a family. Made up of species with uniquesly shared traits such that the species are thought to be closely related. Humans belong to genus Homo
Domain recognizes 3 most basic cell types. Kingdom encompaasses large groups such as plants, animals, or fungis. 3 domains are divided into 6 kingdoms
Subgroup within a class
Phylum is subgroup within a kingdom Many exist within each kingdom Humans belong to phylum chordata
A unique group of organisms united by heridity or interbreeding Humans are species homo sapiens - only living species that walks upright and uses spoken language
the science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms
Chemical that inhibits growth of or kills some microorganisms
A virus that infects bacteria can be called just phage complicated structures for example can be a capsid with tail with tail fibers has long DNA molecule ; tail fibers act like syringes injecting DNA into bacterial host
Protein coat of virus contains special proteins that must match host cell's proteins capsids have variety of shapes
Membrane-like layer that surrounds capdis of SOME viruses Gives virus overall spherical shape although capsid can have a very different shape Made of proteins, lipids, glycoproteins (proteins with attached carbohydrate molecules)
Viral replication in which a viral genome ie replicated a a provirus without destroying the host cell Viral DNA becomes part of host cell's DNA (called provirus) New cells then produced which contain the hprovirus May or may never leave host's DNA and enter lytic cycle A "temperate" virus
Viral replication that results in the destruction of ta host cell and the release of many new virus particles Viral genetic material enters cell but remains separate from host DNA Use's host organelles, enzymes, raw materials to copy virus's DNA and make viral proteins DNA and proteins then assembled to create new virus cells Host cell breaks open and newly made viruses infect other host cells. Host cell is destroyed A "virulent" virus
An organism or virus that causes disease; an infectious agent Koch's postulates used to identify pathogens
Genetic structure that can replicate independently of the main chromosome of the cell Usually a circular DNA molecule in bacteria (prokaryotes) Small extra loops of DNA in a bacteria
Substance prepared from killed or weakened pathogens and introduced into a body to produce immunity Carry surface antigens from pathogen that body recognizes as harmful Triggers immune response and forms memory cells against pathogen
Pieces of nucleic acids in a protein coat Not a living cell Unable to grow and reproduce
Plantlike protist Obtain energy through photosynthesis Vary by pigment
Animal-like protist Single cell protozoa "first animal" Ingest other organisms for energy Move (hunt) using extensions of cell called pseudopodia; also use pseudopodia to capture and engulf prey Live in fresh water, salt water, soil Some are free-living; some are parasites
Organism that produces its own nutrients from inorganic substances or from the environment rather than from other organisms Most plants are autotrophs Photoautotrophs: get energy from sun Chemoautotrophs: get energy from inorganic sources like sulfur, nitrogen
In protozoans, an organelle that accumulates water and then releases it periodically to maintain osmotic pressure Part of unicellular eukaryotes Some plants and fungi have rigid cell walls which prevent cells from expanding from too much water
an organism that feeds by breaking down organic matter from dead organisms Includes bacteria and fungi
Organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their byproducts and that cannot synthesize organic compounds from inorganic materials Most prokaryotes are hetortrophs Most absorb from dead organisms, but some are parasites or pathogens Most live in presence of oxygen, some can live without
Mass of fungal and algal cells that grow together in symbiotic relationship and are usually found on rocks or trees Fungus gets carbohydrates from the other in exchange for providing protective environment and vitamins and minerals to the photosynthetic partner
Protist disease caused by sporozoans of genus Plasmodium Spread by mosquito Sporozoite infects the liver Invades cells and makes millions of parsites, destroying liver cells Merozite then infects red blood cells and divides into 8-24 merozites that rupture cell As red blood cells die, anemia ensues
Animal-like protist Cilliate some of most complex single-celled organisms most or all body covered with short, hairlike structures Move and hunt for food by beating cillia Free-living Found in fresh water and salt water Have two nuclei - macronucleus controls routine cell functions; nicronucleous functions in sexual process Reproduce sexually by conjugation - two cells join temporarily and exchange one of their small nuclei with the other Has contractile vacuole
a species that benefits from a host species Host species is harmed in the relationoship Often lives on or in host, which is usually larger
Fungus-like protist Multinucleate cytoplasm of a slime mold that is surrounded by a membrane and that moves as a mass Forms spores Absorbs nutrients from soil, decaying wood, animal dung Normally exists as single-celled amoebas When food/water runs out, cells release spores
Eukaryotic organisms that cannot be classified as fungi, plants, or animals Very diverse kingdom Characteristics *Membrane-bound organelles *Complex cilia and flagella *Sexual reproduction with gametes *Multicellularity
Animal-like protists Ingest other organisms for energy Heterotrophic (as are animals) Unicellular Most can move Most reproduce asexually by binary fission Includes: amoeboid protists, ciliates like paramecium, flagellates, sporozoans
Cytoplasmic extension on amoeboid protist that functions in food ingestion and movement
Rootlike structure that holds fungi in place and absorbs nutrients Formed by hyphae, threadlike strands
Organism that absorbs nutrients from dead or decaying organisms Recycle nutrients that would otherwise stay trapped Enzymes from fungi break down organic and inorganic matter into nutrients which are then absorbed into the fungi through their cell walls
Animal-like protists that form sporelike cells when they reproduce Lack flagella, cilia, pseudopodia and do not move All are parasitic and caus disease Reproduce asexually and sexually
Having a relationship in which two different organisms live in close association with each other, benefitting from each other
both Archaea and eubacteria no membrane bound organelles genetic material is DNA - single chromosome in a mass called a nucleoid sometimes has plasmids may have ribosomes & many types of enzymes cell wall may be one or two layers thick
protein-carbohydrate compound that makes up bacteria cell wall May have a separate membrane that also covers the peptidoglycan layer
cluster of DNA in bacteria cell
small extra loops of DNA sometimes in bacteria
Purple dye added. Thick layer of peptidoglycan absorbs more dye. No membrane.
Thin layer doesn't trap purple dye. Does absorb pink dye. Has a membrane.
More resistant to medicines and host's defenses.
Get energy from sunlight through photosynthesis. Produce oxygen.
Prokaryote. Only organism to get energy from inorganic source. They like sulfer or nitrogen. Can from all there own amino acids and proteins.
How does bacteria help humans?
Environment - makes oxygen, makes nitrogen for plants, decomposes dead organisms, symbiotic relationoships Industry - pickles, soy sauce, chemicals like acetone, clean up oil spills Research - provides genetic research & understanding of DNA
How does bacteria cause disease?
1. producing toxins 2. destroying body tissues
How does antibiotic resistance occur?
Antibiotic sensitive strains killed by antibiotics and the resistant bacteria take over.
Why is it hard to find drugs to treat viruses?
Because the virus enters the host's cells and it is hard to find a drug that will kill the virus without affecting the host's cell.
Prokaryotes (bacteria) usually reproduce asexually with a single cell dividing into two identical new cells
Three ways that prokaryotes can form new genetic combinations (not really reproduction) Conjugation - two bacteria exchange genetic material Transformation - bacteria take up DNA fragments from their environment Transduction - Genetic material, such as a pasmid, is transferred by a virus (often convey antibiotic resistance)
Method for bacteria to adapt to harsh conditions Endospore is thick walled structure Endospore forms inside bacteria - surrounds DNA and small bit of cytoplasm Can survive boiling, radiation, acid. Show no signs of life and can be revived to life after 100's of years
How do protists reproduce?
Asexually, producing offspring geneticallly identical to parVinary fissionent Sexually as a respone to environmental stress.
One type of protist asexual reproduction Unicellular organism splits in half after replicating its DNA Sometimes call mitosis, which is technically only division of nucleus Prokaryotes (bacteria) don't have nuclei so they have binary fission but not mitosis
One type of protist asexual reproduction Part of parent pinpches off and forms new organism Can occur in unicelluar and multicelluar organisms Different from binary fission cuz offspring smaller than parent
One type of protist asexual reproduction Part of muticellular organism breaks off and starts new organism Different from budding cuz budding is performed by organism, fragmentation is result of something done to the organism
Sexual reproduction in unicelluar protists
Mature organism = haploid Haploid divides by binary fission = haploid gametes Two gametes fuse=diploid zygote then becomes zygospore Enviromental conditions improve & mieosis occurs Haploid cells break out of zygospore & grow into mature cells
Sexual reproduction in muticellular protists
Many muticellular protists reproduce both sexually and asexually Alternation of generations is both sexual and asexual
How are fungi reproduced?
In sexual reproduction,spores produced meisosis In asexual reproduction, spores produced by mitosis
Sexual reproduction in fungus
hyphae from one fungus fuses with hyphae from fungus of opposite mating type form reproductive structure like mushroom inside structure, nuclei from two mating types fuse New diploid nuclei undergoes meiosis and produces haploid spore that are released
Asexual reproduction in fungus
Simpler than asexua specialized hyphae produce long stalks at tips of talks, haploid spores produced by mitosis Fungi that develop are genetically identica to parent
Yeast and mold
specific stages of the life cycle that are shared by several types of fungi
species of fungi primarily in unicelular state reproduce asexually by budding
rapidly growing asexually reproducing stage of some types of fungi
Characteristics of fungi
threadlike bodies cell walls are made of chitin absorb nutrients from their environment
carbohydrate found in cell walls of fungi and other organisms
how do fungi get nutrients
heterotrophic can't make food or move to capture food release enzymes that break down organic and inorganic materials and absorb nutrients
how do bacteria get nutrients
autotrophs or heterotrophs
how do protists get nutrients
photosynthesis heterotrophic chemotrophi
how do protists get nutrients
plant-like: photosynthesis animal-like: heterotrophic (ingest other organism) fungus-like: absorb nutrients from decomposing wood, etc.
diatoms euglenoids dinoflagellates red, green, brown agae
fungus like protists
sllime molds water molds downy mildews
rootlike structure that holds fungi in place and absorbs nutrients
organism that absorbs nutrients from dead or decaying organisms
groups of fungi
chytrid - group of aquatic fungi zygote - sexual reproductive structures that produced zygotes inside tough capsule sac fungi- have ascus, saclike sexua reproductive structure that produces spores club fungi - have a basidium, a clublike sexua reproductive structure that produces spores
mutualism fungus provides structure algae or cyanobacterium provides food