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Final Exam Bio 112 tissues and ventilation
Terms in this set (63)
the study of the structure of the organism
study of the functions of an organism
Law of Hydrodynamics
least amount of drag in the water, same basic body shape. (streamline)
Surface area to volume ratio
volume increases faster than surface area, need enough surface area to serve the volume, multicellularity increase as organism increases. The bigger the organism is, it will need more cells to facilitate diffusion and transport across the body faster with the complexity of the body.
What are some adaptations that large animals have developed to overcome challenges associated with exchanging materials with environment?
lungs help with exchange due to the fact that a human needs more systems than a flatworm does so exchange oxygen over their whole body. Folded tissues in the lung help with gas exchange (circulatory and respiratory systems), extensively folded or branched internal surfaces specialized for exchange with the environment. Body systems, and the circulatory system shuttles material among all the exchange surfaces within the animals.
How can you maximize surface area?
branching, flattening, folding, having projections (microvilli), and transport systems.
If you need H2O for diffusion, but you live on land, what do you issues will you have?
If you live on land you won't be submerged and will go through the possibility of drying out (also known as desiccation), this is due to having a water tight body surface.
If you need H2O for diffusion, but you live on land, what is the solution?
still doing diffusions- now just doing that across moist internal exchange surfaces, internal exchange surfaces, with opening to the environment, and surfaces are moist.
Animals are multicellular organisms with their specialized cell grouped into tissues which make up functional sites called organs and organs make up organ systems. cells>tissues>organs>organ systems.
Cells are held together by an
four types of tissues:
epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
simple, stratified, and pseudostratified (looks columnar)
squamous- flat and tough, cuboidal- dice shape, columnar- brick shape
Where is squamous tissue?
abrasion resistant, epidermis, lining of mouth, vagina, and anus
Where is cuboidal and columnar tissue?
non abrasion resistant, organ linings and glands
Where is pseudostratified tissue?
ciliated and produce mucous, respiratory lining
Glands are formed from
secrete onto an epithelial surface
secrete into interstitial fluid of blood.
Three kinds of connective tissue fibers
Collagenous fibers are made of collagen
Elastic fibers are long threads of elastin
Reticular fibers are made of collagen
adipose tissue (connective)
fat tissue, adipocytes
chondrocytes, make up the fibers and foundation.
white blood cells and plasma cells alone with RBC's.
voluntary, you make your body move
you can't make your heart beat so it moves on its own
digestive tract, stomach and intestines.
transmits electrical tissues, made of nerves and all their supporting structures.
transport materials throughout the body
absorb nutrients, food processing, ingestion, digestion, absorption, and defecation.
gets ride of metabolic waste (nitrogen based waste) filters your blood. It can help balance salt levels.
creating new organisms, produce gametes, eggs and sperms, facilitating fertilization. Protects developing embryo and fetus.
sensory organs, coordinates bodily activities.
body support, protection of internal organs.
support protection movement and locomotion.
regulating or conforming are how animals cope with environmental fluctuations.
use internal mechanisms to control internal change in the face of external fluctuations.
allow internal conditions to change in accordance with external fluctuation.
control mechanism that reduces the stimulus and brings back to set point.
control mechanism that amplifies the stimulus to drive the processes to completion (breast feeding)
maintaining body temp. within a tolerable range.
body temp is regulated by metabolism
body temp is determined by the temp of the surrounding environment
maintain relatively constant body temps and poikilotherms do not
can be active in the below-freezing or quite hot weather, high levels of aerobic respiration.
energetically expensive, they need to consume more food.
How do animals exchange heat through the environment?
Radiation, evaporation, convection, and conduction.
Thermoregulatory adaptations 1: keep heat in through insulation.
Hair, feathers, and fat located just beneath the skin reduce flow of heat from body to environment.
Piloerection- creating more insulation by making the hairs stand on end.
Thermoregulatory adaptations 2: regulate blood flow between surface and core.
Vasodilation: expansion of the diameter of superficial blood vessels increasing blood flow and heat to skin
Vasoconstriction: constriction of the diameter of superficial blood vessels decreasing blood flow and heat to skin.
Countercurrent heat exchange: arteries carrying warm blood are in close contact with veins conveying cool blood back toward the trunk.
Thermoregulatory adaptations 3: cooling by evaporative heat loss
Terrestrial animals lose water by evaporation across the skin
Water absorbs considerable heat when it evaporates carrying heat away from animals.
Thermoregulatory adaptations 4: adjusting metabolic heat production
Thermogenesis: varying heat production to match changing rates of heat loss.
Shiver (involuntary muscle contractions for more oxygen) or move around to increase heat production.
Nonshivering thermogenesis is using hormones to alter metabolism to produce heat instead of ATP.
Thermoregulatory adaptations 5: behavioral responses
Change activity level
Migrate to a more suitable climate (large scale of changing location)
Enter torpor- slow everything down so more metabolic activity isn't needed. Physiological state where your activity is low.
Why do we need oxygen, and why do we produce carbon dioxide?
Cellular respiration (O2+glucose= energy (ATP) + water + CO2). We make ATP run our bodies, break down glucose, and get ride of CO2. We need oxygen for cellular respiration to work. CO2 and water are the outcomes.
How does gas exchange work?
Has exchange is the uptake of O2 from the environment and the discharge of CO2 to the environment. A gas always diffuses from a region of higher partial pressure to a region of lower partial pressure. Diffusion goes down**
Where do animals exchange gases with the environment?
Respiratory surfaces are made of epithelial tissue.
Respiratory surfaces are folded or branched.
Respiratory surfaces are thin.
Respiratory surfaces are moist.
What are the possible respiratory surfaces?
diffusion directly into and out of all body cells, cutaneous, tracheal (insects), and lungs (tetrapods)
How are respiratory surfaces ventilated?
the conditions for gas exchange vary depending on oxygen source
dissolved O2 in bodies of water is much lower than in air
water is much more dense and viscous than air
Aquatic animals must expend considerably more energy to carry out gas exchange than terrestrial animals
Ventilation is the movement of the respiratory medium over the respiratory surface.
ventilation in amphibians
Their muscles lower the oral cavity so air can come in. With the nostrils and mouth closed, air is forced down the trachea into the lungs. Air is released by the elastic recoil, this is a lot fo muscular work. Ventilate they're lungs by positive pressure breathing.
ventilation in reptiles and mammals
ventilate their lungs by negative pressure breathing which requires much less energy. Mammals have a diaphragm using their rib muscles you make the thoracic cavity bigger and the relaxation lets air come out.
Unidirectional air movement in birds
carbon dioxide and oxygen don't mix because they have two breathing cycles.
How are gases transported in the circulatory system?
respiratory pigments usually have a metal bond to a protein.
Arthropods, annelids, mollusks
Large proteins bound to copper ions
Blue when oxygenated
colorless when deoxygenated
erythrocytes and vertebrates; large proteins are bound to iron which colors the blood red.
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