Lesson 8: the developing mind
Terms in this set (83)
unlearned, automatic respooonses to a particular stimulus
touch the side of the cheek and and the infant turns their head that way
something touches the tips/goes right inside of the mouth they will suck on it
if you startle a baby their arms fly out and come in
palmar grasp reflex
they grasp onto what is in their hand
function of rooting/sucking relfex
function of moro/palmar reflex
survival. if mom has to flee for survival, this helps the infant hold onto mom
the baby's legs move as if they're walking when their feet touch ground
stroke the bottom of the foot, the toes fan out and curl in
function of stepping and babinski reflex
tonic neck reflex
lay an infant down on their back they automatically turn to one side, put one arm out, and draw up the other arm
sometimes called the fencer reflex
function of tonic neck reflex
keep airway open while sleeping (we think)
trends in development
cephalocaudal trend (top to bottom), proximodistal trend (center outward)
motor milestones: raising head, rolling over, sitting up, crawling, walking
"the files" a concept or framework that organizes and interprets the information
interpreting one's new experience in terms of existing schemas
example of assimilation
if you had only ever seen small dogs, the file for dog would only have small dogs. but once you see a large dog the file changes
significant modifications to existing schemas based on new information
example of accommodation
you learn about a new animal that kind of looks like a dog. you have to make adjustments to the dog one, and add a new file for a goat
schemas and adaptation are what part of Cognitive development?
Piaget's quantitative elements
stages of development are what part of cognitive development
piaget's qualitative elements
birth to 2 years, sensorimotor stage
we form schemas through exploration of the world through senses
development of object permanence
what is object permanence
when infants can no longer see something, they think it no longer exists
is development continuous or discontinuous?
Piaget says discontinuous because all of a sudden they develop it
A not B error task
Take a toy children really like, put it under blanket A. At first children think it's gone, but around 6 months they will reach for it from under the blanket A. however, if you then put it under blanket B, they will reach for it under blanket A
shows object permanence comes online before Piaget thought
problems with A not B error task
thought maybe because it was motor based younger kids couldn't do it. So Karen Wynn's research did a visual experiment
Karen Wynns' A not B visual experiment
Takes two toys and a screen comes up so you can't see them. The researcher then pulls a toy out from behind it (so the child can see them). Then they show either a possible or impossible outcome. Possible shows just the other toy, and impossible outcome shows two toys
5-6 month old infants stared at the impossible outcome.
Some are saying it's more continuous
2-7 years, preoperational
development and use of internal images and symbols, animistic thinking, transductive thinking
simple cause-effect thinking
because I was thinking of the dog barking, that's why he started barking
providing human characteristics and traits to objects
they can't really think of other perspectives, put themselves in others' shoes, etc.
may nod when talking on the phone, hold up something so it's facing them and not the person they're showing
Piaget's mountain study
shows the child can't put themselves in researcher's shoes
7-12 years, concrete
children think more logically to draw conclusions, for example through recognizing patterns or inductive reasoning
able to successfully complete conservation tasks
Piaget's conservation task
children who have reached this stage know the two are equal.
other examples of conservation tasks
substance: number of cookies, clay, etc. they will know different configurations of the same amount are equal
12+ years, formal
now use abstract reasoning and hypothetical events and deductive reasoning, abstract concepts, if then ideas, metacognition grows
what is love, freedom, the meaning of life?
think that metacognition grows and doesn't stop until 20
"speed bumps" in new thinking to metacognition
imaginary audience, personal fable and optimism bias, pseudo-stupidity
as we critique ourselves too much, we think everyone else is too. this is why they're so self conscious
personal fable and optimism bias
the teenager is so special, no one can understand them, what they're going through. a byproduct of imaginary audience. why would they do this unless you were special?
15 year old girl's boyfriend breaks up with her, and she tells her mom her mom can't understand what she's going through, even though of course the mom knows what a breakup feels like
thinks no bad things can happen to them. they know all about dangers of smoking, unprotected sex, etc. but they don't think it'll happen to them because they're so important
over thinking, too much introspection
is stage 4 continuous or discontinous
very continuous. you may get parts of this stage at different ages. you will become familiar with areas you're more likely to use quicker
criticisms of Piaget's theory
stops at teen years. Does a 15 year old think like a 25 year old? 50 year old?
Lev Vygotsky's zones
a girl who wants to learn to skateboard can learn to do it by herself only to a certain extent
process of interacting with expert
examples of zones
learning a new language, riding a bike, learning an instrument
cognitive growth may be internal but
there is always an effect of external sources
is there a limit?
attachment theories and studies
emotional bond/tie you have to another person
why does attachment happen?
drive reduction theory, contact comfort theory, operant conditioning, biological imprinting
drive reduction theory
caregiver provides food, satisfies the most initial drive we have as an infant by our parent. Form an attachment with a parent because they feed you
contact comfort theory
Harlow's experiments: He had two surrogate mothers (one looks soft and has soft facial features, the other is made of cold wire face, hard facial features but has food). Does the baby monkey go to the soft mother or the one with food? Most of the time the soft one. Disproves the drive reduction theory.
When the monkey is scared, they also run to the soft mother. That shows that they have some form of emotional attachment to the mother
We're just taking away something they don't want - hunger
But wait, what about in abusive relationships? Scared, upset kids will go to an abusive parent for comfort, even though it's not taking away something
lorenz & Bowlby's work
Noticed that for baby geese, if he was the first thing they saw once they were born they always followed them around
A little different for different animals. For some animals, he had to do different actions.
There is a time limit during which this must take place or the imprinting won't occur.
Suggests we may be primed to have an emotional attachment to a parent
So can you ruin a child's attachment to their parent if you separate them from their parent after birth? Or if we put them in daycare?
Usually takes about three years to form an attachment
how do we measure the quality of attachment?
Mary Ainsworth's Strange Situation Paradigm
Mary Ainsworth's Strange Situation Paradigm
-Mother leaves child (12-18 months) alone in a room with toys
-Stranger walks into the room
-Mother returns to greet the child
The results are seen in Childhood patterns
secure attachment style
-toddler is anxious when coming into the room, but starts playing eventually. Secure base: they play, show mom a toy, go back to playing, show mom another toy
-when mom leaves, the toddler tries to follow: Goal directed behavior. They get upset when they can't get mom
-When stranger comes over to console them it doesn't work
-when mom comes back, they're happy to see mom
-they go back to playing
parents of children with secure attachemnt
they consistently meet the needs of the infant
outcomes of children with secure attachment
Positive life outcomes in child, emotionally positive as well, behaviorally, psychologically.
-no secure base, no goal directed behavior
-don't' care when mom leaves, don't interact with stranger
-look really independent, ANS is very stressed out on inside
-doesn't really care when mom comes back
-child has learned that they can't count on mom to help them, so they don't bother crying.
characteristics of parent of child with insecure avoidant
parent is never there, very unlikely to help out child when stressed
life outcomes of child with insecure avoidant
low social competence, more likely to be bullies, have trust issues, substance abuse
-toddler stays really close to mom, won't go without mom
-do show goal directed behavior but stay close to mom the whole time
-when mom leaves they cry and fuss to extreme
-when mom returns it takes a long time to calm them down
characteristics of parents with children with insecure ambivalent
mixed, sometimes parents help out, sometimes not
life outcomes for children with insecure ambivalent
so dependent on others, internalize issues (depression, anxiety)
Diana Baumrind's parenting styles
two dimensions; responsiveness, demandingness
warmth and affection
responsive to child's needs, helps them when child is upset, etc.
how strict or unstructured is environment
are there rules in your house? if rules are broken, what happens?
high responsiveness, low demandingness
-rarely use punishment but may use love withdrawal to influence behavior
-not a lot of rules in house, parents feel discipline interferes with child's ability to love, may not like conflict
-spoiled brat syndrome
-threatens to remove love to punish kids "if you don't leave now you won't have me, you'll be alone"
-children tend to have poor impulse control and problems with autonomy
-parents may take on a friend role
-low demandingness, responsiveness
-provides no rules or comfort
-parent is either too preoccupied with their own life, or they just don't want to be a parent
-all about the parent and what they want. may leave child home alone, pawn them off on a relative, take them wherever parent goes
-absence of parenting.
-leads to emotional, psychological, behavioral issues
high demandingness, low responsiveness
-require high levels of obedience and structure without providing warmth and comfort
-parent may have a high level of distrust of the child and becomes wrapped up in that
-child may not have behavioral issues, but serious psychological issues, depression, anxiety, etc.
-tend to display emotional problems
-provides high levels of warmth within a structure environment
-utilizes enable interactions. only parenting style where this exists. You have discussions, the child has some say on what's going on, parent listens
-best parenting practice
when responsiveness is low
internalizing issues are higher (anxiety, depression)
when demaningness is low
externalizing issues are higher (behavioral issues, etc.)
who looked at measuring morality
how did kohlberg measure morality
he provided patients with "ethical dilemma" stories, for example the Heinz dilemma
what was kohlberg interested int
their explanations of their responses
preconventional, conventional, post conventional
all about reward and punishment
-looking out for how you'll be rewarded
obeying laws and protecting image in social relationships
-Heinz's intentions are good, a good husband shouldn't sit back and watch his wife die (he will be perceived as a good husband)
-if we all break the laws, how can we maintain society?
protection of higher universal principles (something you feel is so important to protect and maintain that may cause you pain or make others hate you)
-laws are only valid if they're grounded in justice. therefore, we're required to break unfair laws. life is more important than property