Terms in this set (125)
refers to the behavior and thinking that people living in a social group learn, develop, and share
refers to the array of differences among individuals, group, and communities,
quality of being unalike or different
in cultural context diversity usually refers to
characteristics that distinguish broad cultural groups
➝level of education
➝residence in urban versus rural areas
restriction of justice, rights, and privilege for minority groups
a group who is outside the dominate group
group within a culture whose practices/beliefs are distinct from the parent group
Examples of subcultures
religious sects, ethnic groups, devotes to genres of music or philosophy
Describes a society in which the cultures and subcultures groups coexist
the drive of multiculturalism in US is?
immigration, people from different countries seek US to find a new way of life. (freedom of oppression, religion)
how would one describe multiculturalism in terms of unity?
a salad bowl, different but together to be great
prejudgments about cultural groups or vulnerable populations that are unfavorable and false
nurses must be?
cultural humility/aware, must care for the person, not judge them
cultural values and beliefs help nurses to?
➝identify acceptable behaviors
➝determine appropriate actions
➝choose emotional reactions
describe preferred ways of behaving or thinking
rules and cultural values in North America and parts of Europe "Western Culture"
dont hurt others
dont cheat on your spouse
❣influence individual decisions and actions
❣differ in every culture
❣passed from one generation to the next gen
❣may be rooted in religious faith or practices
❣based on peoples experiences and exposure to differences,
❣can affect t course and outcome of illness and disease
❣can present barriers to necessary care
barriers to care-cultural differences
❣lack of trust in healthcare/providers
❣belief in origin of illness
❣lack of holistic care
❣fear/denial of death
❣cultural assumptions about disease
how does family involvement affect care?
family involvement lack thereof: no support system
too much: pts needs rights and privacy
how does lack of trust in healthcare/providers affect care?
immigrants, different beliefs, lack of insurance
how does belief in origin of illness affect care?
belief that origin of illness are not linked to scientific psychophysiology
1. caused from smoking
2. different culture thinks its punishment from being a bad person
how does cultural assumptions about dz affect care?
may influence the presentations of symptoms- stop taking their meds when they feel "better"
culture is transmitted from one generation to the next through, language, material objects, rituals, customs, institutions, art
cultural transmission from adults to children, customs and rituals from past generation
integrating parts of the larger culture; process of adapting to customs, attitudes, and values of the dominant culture,
when one person looses on culture to another culture
➸lose own identity, not only adapting, but accepting the culture of the majority group as one's own
what must nurses avoid?
avoid stereotyping and making assumptions
ask appropriate questions to assess cultural practices
which race has health disparities that are a concern in the US?
socially defined populations that share genetically transmitted physical characteristics such as:
race is usually defined by?
physical attributes linked to a specific continent of origin-complex
when a group of people are oppressed based on perceived race
racism may causes?
may be overt,
acts of hostility, or more subtle
⇸policies and rules that benefit one group over another
race skin color assessment
cyanosis present in white person's skin rather than black person, check:
refers to cultural factors, including nationality, regional culture, ancestry, language
2010 National Health Disparities reports that this group of race has a high rate of AIDS
African Americans have a rate of AIDS that is 10x greater than Caucasians
which race are at greater risk of heart dz?
which race has higher risk to osteoporosis
which race has high risk of diabetes
which race is 50% more likely than Caucasians not to be vaccinated for PNA?
true or false.
Asians were 1.5 times more likely not to get care for an illness or injury
which race populations has worsening colorectal cancer mortality?
which race population is more likely to report poor communication with their health care provider ?
Hispanics 1.7x more likely than Caucasians
term for a variety of conditions in which people born that do not seem to fit in their reproductive anatomy and dont fall into typical male or female definitions
people who dont identify with the gender assigned to their body
transgender can suffer from?
mental illness and lack of access, people are mean and judgmental
generalizations based on oversimplified or outmoded assumptions about gender roles.
⇸women: pink, cant drive
⇸men: blue, dont cry
gender identification does not?
imply specific characteristics of any individual
true or false
the sexes do have differing access to resources and power, often reinforced by cultural norms
these differences have an impact on health risks and healthcare
⇸the vulnerability women experience from spousal abuse
determining effective healthcare interventions has until recently been?
gender blind. research done with adult white males has been the basis of most treatment
gender-blind research is?
mostly focusing on one certain gender and race
demonstrating preferences towards one group of gender over another.
-prefer working with males than women
gender bias is also known as?
the variety of ways women and cultural minorities experience symptoms and varied responses to health interventions is being ?
incorporated into healthcare
the oppression of group of people based on their socioeconomic status
homeless individuals experience a high incidence of?
substance abuse, mental illness, have unpredictable availability of food, shelter, safety
what can nurses do to help for the vulnerable population?
➸help identify resources,
➸access to meds,
➸ when and where do they eat, how often
➸any personal resources available to use
what type of treatment programs that are most suitable for homeless population
community health centers
who are at greatest risk of living in poverty?
children and female-headed households
Undocumented Immigrants experience many barriers to health care:
→lack of insurance
→fear of legal consequences
→cultural differences in healthcare practices
state and regional healthcare policies on undocumented immigrants may vary, nurses must be are of ?
yet strive to provide high quality services
lies on a continuum of preferences for an individual's choice of sexual partners.
biases related to sexual orientation include
negative feelings or behaviors towards gays or lesbians
the belief that heterosexuality is superior and the only acceptable sexual ortientation
what should nurses function for the LGBTQ community?
function as advocates for community supports for health of LGBTQ individuals
➝safe housing and schools
➝access to health care
LBGTQ people are at higher risk for health problems such as
obesity, mental health issues, substance abuse and violence
which LBGTQ individual are at the highest risk of being discriminated against?
transgender, highest risk than gay or lesbian.
often dont seek out healthcare due to fear of discrimination
how does intellectual and physical disability affect an individual?
can adversely affect an individual's capacity to provide self-care and participate in health promotion activities
Intellectual Disabilities are often accompanied by?
related physical conditions and can challenge families emotionally and financially.
in order to assist Intellectual Disabilities individuals and their families nurses must?
develop trusting relationships, find necessary resources
and make the necessary referrals to put the right people in contact with these families and pts.
the nurse can recommend Intellectual Disabilities individual and families to whom?
case worker, they know resources
true or false
both children and the elderly are vulnerable populations?
depend on others for nutrition, healthcare, transportation, personal safety.
discrimination against older people. reflects society's emphasis on youth, beauty, and productivity.
how do older people face ageism in workplaces
they slow learners, dependence on others, they will retire soon, computer naive,
prefers youth and beauty
how does Healthy People 2020 define health disparities?
a particular type of health difference that is closely linked with social, economic, and/or environmental disadvantages.
Healthy People 2020: health disparities adversely affect groups of people who have systematically experienced greater obstacles to health based on their:
➝racial or ethnic group
➝gender identity/sexual orientation
significant behavioral health disparities persist in diverse communities across the US include
⇸racial and ethnic groups
groups of people in our culture at greater risk for diseases and reduced lifespan.
what makes a person belong in the vulnerable populations
➝place of residence: homelessness
what is the major culprit in vulnerable populations?
⇸more diverse providers
reducing disparities improve?
improve quality of care = health equity
reducing health disparities: increasing awareness
public, healthcare providers, insurance, policy makers,
understand what people need
reducing health disparities: more diverse providers
diverse providers are needed, especially in underserved communities
reducing health disparities: guidelines for using interpreters
more interpreters in clinics, hospitals.
-protect confidentiality by avoiding the use of family members
-attend to verbal as well as nonverbal communication, eye contact
-avoid using jargon or complex phrasing
-address questions to client
-provide written materials in clients language whenever possible
individual learn social behaviors practiced in their cultures or communities
-→the role religion plays a greater role in some community's vs others.
-→some towns may have the 10 commandments
-→or live nativity at Christmas in the town hall
-→others may completely ban any kind of religious observances on government properties
susceptibility to disease
certain groups have more susceptibility to disease
→like African Americans and sickle cell (related to malaria, not skin color)
→cystic fibrous is seen in Caucasians
most likely to get sickle cell dz
historically associated with race, but with all the variations of color, no race should be related to skin color.
→nurses should know how to care for different skin tones
→darker skin; closer inspection, more light for oxygenation
different languages , translation of concepts lead to misconception misunderstanding.
→direct eye contact is an example
→head-nodding; person may not be agreeing with you, just respecting authority.
ability to attempt to control nature or environmental factors.
→internal locus of control:
→external locus of focus-
internal locus of control:
i can control certain aspects of my life so i exercise, eat healthy
external locus of focus
- their health is God's will, not much else to do about it. less likely to engage in preventative health
includes any genetic and physical differences among multicultural groups
→variations in metabolizing psychoactive medications
biological variations: Asian people are more likely to be?
type of family unit, extended or nuclear. religious or multicultural which help to shape the identify of a culturally diverse group of client.
different cultures have different definitions of personal space
there are likely to be variations among appropriate distances
->in social or public setting
many people have personal boundary or pace which produces anxiety when crossed
different cultural groups value different aspects of time
non-dominant cultural groups value in time orientation
➺the past and present might be more valued
dominant Anglo-American culture of the US value in time orientation
➺places more emphasis on the future
cultural competency is?
➺capacity for self-assessment
➺awareness of interaction dynamics
➺knowledge about different cultures
➺adaptability in care ``
cultural competence is a process and an outcome. when caring patients of diverse backgrounds and beliefs to overcome barriers and access resources promoting health and wellness, RN must have the ability to?
apply knowledge and skills needed to provide high-quality, evidence-based care
essential cultural competencies begins with?
the five competencies of cultural competence identified by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing care
1. Apply knowledge
2. best evidence/data-
3. quality outcomes-
4.. advocate for social justice-
5. continuous cultural competence development.t
AACN: Apply knowledge
of social and cultural factors that affect nursing and health care across multiple contexts
AACN: best evidence/data-
use relevant data sources and best evidence in providing culturally competent care
AACN: quality outcomes
promote achievement of safe and quality outcomes of care for diverse populations
AACN: advocate for social justice
including commitment to the health of vulnerable populations and elimination of health disparities
AACN: continuous cultural competence development.
participate in continuous cultural competence development
provides a method for incorporating cultural awareness and sensitivity in providing health care overcome
LEARN model can be used to help health care providers?
communication and cultural barriers to successful patient education
listen to clients perception of the problem
explain your perception of the problem and of the treatments ordered by the physician
acknowledge and discuss the differences and similarities between the two perceptions
review the ordered treatments while remembering the clients cultural parameters
agreement, helping the client choose cultural foods that are permitted on an ordered diet
promote safety: communicate effectively
provide adequate nutrition
promote physical mobility
utilizing alternative therapies
nursing interventions: promote safety
pts who do not understand your language may not call you before they fall
-family bringing in food that could interfere with fluid or diet restrictions
-family bring traditional healing remedies that could interact with meds
nursing interventions: provide adequate nutrition
not many of ethnic food in the hospital.
many cultures see food as a way of healing, providing balance
eat certain food during certain dz states
(pregnancy-hot state; eat cold foods)
cold foods helps body rids of heat, remove toxins
hot//warm food helps to warm up stomach, clear up coldness, strengthen body.
what can nurses do regarding pts ethnic food?
incorporate the pts preferences when its safe to do so
nursing interventions: promoting physical mobility
many cultures believe the sick must be in bed. regain strength in bed, not true.
this can cause conflict with the nurse who wants the pt up out of bed, walking pt to prevent skin breakdown, muscle atrophy, clots, etc.
nurses promoting mobility should?
educate and come up with a plan to get pt moving but also allows for rest. negotiate
nursing interventions: utilizing alternative therapies
as long as not medically contraindicated, it is okay to utilize massage, essential oils, etc in plan of care