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Old Testament, Unit 4
Terms in this set (71)
Daniel came about ______________ before Ezekiel, but both were exilic prophets
A genre that foretells supernaturally inspired cataclysmic events through the use of visionary and metaphorical imagery
Outline of Daniel
-Events of Daniel's life (chapters 1-6)
-Visions (chapters 7-12)
Purpose of Daniel
To assure the exiles and returnees to the land that God was in control of history and that God's Kingdom would triumph
Who is king in Daniel?
Beginning - Nebuchadnezzar
End - Darius
How the sovereignty of God can be seen in Daniel
-stone crushing earth's kingdoms (2:34-35)
-rescue from fiery furnace (3:23-30)
-deliverance from lion's den (6:19-23)
-future arrival of Ancient of Days (7:9-14)
All minor prophets in the Hebrew Old Testament
Prophets of 9th century
Obadiah, Joel (either 9th or 4th)
Prophets of 8th century
Amos, Hosea, Jonah, Isaiah, Micah
Prophets of 7th century
Nahum, Zephaniah, Habakkuk, Jeremiah
Post exilic prophets
Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi
Plot of minor prophets
Sin, judgement, restoration
Characters of minor prophets
God, prophet himself, nations, Israel's sinful people, Israel's righteous remnant
Characteristics of minor prophets
Behavior to be corrected, future to be fulfilled; prophet articulates sin and announces judgement, restoration, and that a Messiah is coming
Who did Hosea prophesy against?
The northern kingdom (Ephriam)
Hosea both _____________ and _______________ his message
What was Hosea's love and marriage for his unfaithful wife (Gomer) a reflection of?
God's love for unfaithful Israel
Jezreel - "God will scatter"
Lo Ruhamah - "No mercy"
Lo Ammi - "Not my people"
Chapters 1-3 - sin illustrated (portrayal)
Chapters 4-14 - Israel's sin
"Yaweh is God" or "The Lord is God"
Joel speaks more about _______________ than ___________
What phrase was found many times in Joel?
"The Day of the Lord"
Interpretations of "The Day of the Lord" in Joel
-the locust plague
-escatalogically (the final day)
Prophet of justice
When did Amos prophesy?
Who did Amos prophesy against?
Northern kingdom (Ephriam)
Circular prophecy in Amos
Prophesied against Assyria, then Gaza, then Tyre, then Edom, Ammonites, Moab, then finally Judah
3 characteristics of Amos
-focuses more on judgement than hope
-Amos' visions (fire, plumb line, bowl of fruit)
How long is Obadiah?
Only 21 verses
When did Obadiah prophesy?
9th century (earliest)
Who did Obadiah prophesy against?
Edom (another country)
Central verse of Obadiah
15 - pronounced judgement, consequences came, but still hope
Obadiah is a good example of _____________ and ___________
How is Jonah different from other prophets?
It is more linear (rather than thematic); it is a narrative/tells a story
Who was Jonah called to prophesy against?
Nineveh (Assyrian city, brutal people)
What does the book of Jonah teach?
Salvation - no one is too far from God's grace
The book of Jonah shows us...
-the grace of God is for anyone/everyone
-repentance is not far from anyone
-it is not up to us to decide who gets God's grace
"Blue collar" prophet
Who did Micah prophesy to?
Northern and southern kingdoms; to "common man" (in agricultural areas)
When did Micah prophesy?
Following God is more _________ than __________
When did Nahum prophesy?
Who was Nahum's prophecy to?
Not a prophecy about Israel, but about Nineveh, and TO Judah (to encourage them)
Why would Nahum's prophecy encourage Judah?
They would be glad to see Nineveh judged (because they were so horrible), and they would see that God is true to His Word/character
Prophetic perfect tense
When a prophet speaks about something that is going to happen as if it is already happening/has already happened
The philosopher prophet
How is the book of Habakkuk different from others?
The whole book is a response to his questions
Dialogue with God (chapters 1-2)
Praise to God (chapter 3)
Habakkuk shows us...
To be honest in our prayers to God
What does Habakkuk ask God?
How long are you going to let this happen? Will you ever bring justice?
When did Zephaniah minister?
During the time of king Josiah
What phrase is found many times in Zephaniah?
"The Day of the Lord"
What does "The Day of the Lord" refer to in Zephaniah?
-other nations experiencing judgement
-Assyria conquering Israel
What does "The Day of the Lord" refer to in the New Testament?
The return of Christ
Haggai was a _____________ prophet
What did Haggai do?
Encouraged the people to rebuild the temple
Zechariah was a _____________ prophet
In priestly lineage; visionary prophet
Zechariah focused on...
The people's attitudes
What kind of visions and prophecy are found in Zechariah?
Visions of the Messiah (Messianic prophecy)
Why did Malachi prophesy?
To encourage the people
When did Malachi prophesy?
After Nehemiah returned to Babylon
Malachi calls people to...
Have a pure heart/heart for God
How does Malachi end?
On a prophetic note - "the sun of righteousness will rise with healing in his wings"