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34 terms

autonomic nervous system

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Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
This regulates the activity of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands
Autonomic sensory neurons, Integrating Centers in the CNS and Autonomic motor neurons
Structurally the ANS includes what three parts?
Without conscious control
Does the ANS operate with or without conscious control?
Hypothalamus and Medulla Oblongata
The ANS is regulated by which two parts of the brain?
Limbic System and other regions of the cerebrum
The hypothalamus and medulla oblongata receive input from where?
Somatic nervous system
1. This system's sensory neurons receive input from receptors of the special senses that are perceived consciously
2. This system's motor neurons innervate skeletal muscle to produce conscious, voluntary movement. The effect is always excitation
Autonomic nervous system
1. This system's sensory neurons are associated with interoceptors in viscera. These activities usually lie beyond conscious control and not consciously perceived.
2. Motor Neurons regulate visceral activities by either increasing (exciting) or decreasing (inhibiting) ongoing activities of cardiac muscle, smooth muscle or glands. Can not be consciously altered or suppressed.
Somatic
This efferent neuron synapses on skeletal muscles
Autonomic
Two efferent neurons of this type synapse from CNS to glanglion, and then glanglion to visceral effector.
Acetylcholine (ACh)
Somatic efferent neurons release what?
Acetylcholine (ACh)
Autonomic efferent PREganglionic neurons release what?
Acetylcholine (ACh) and Norepinephrine (NE)
Autonomic efferent POSTganglionic neurons release what?
Nerves, ganglia and plexuses
Autonomic nervous system consists of visceral efferent neurons organized into what?
Preganglionic
The first of two autonomic efferent neurons (with myelinated axons) extend from CNS to ganglion is called what?
Postganglionic
The second of two autonomic efferent neurons (with UNmyelinated axons) lies entirely outside the CNS and extends directly to the effector (muscle or gland)
Sympathetic and parasympathetic
The autonomic nervous system consists of two principle divisions
Sympathetic trunk ganglia (on both sides of spinal column), prevertebral ganglia (anterior to spinal column) and parasympathetic terminal ganglia (near or inside visceral effectors)
Autonomic ganglia are classified as what and located where?
Visceral Autonomic Reflex
This adjusts the activity of a visceral effector
receptor, afferent neuron, association neuron, visceral efferent preganglionic neuron, Visceral efferent postganglionic neuron, and visceral effector
Name the six components of a Visceral autonomic reflex arc
To convey a motor impulse from the CNS to the autonomic ganglion
The role of the preganglionic neuron is what?
neurotransmitters
Autonomic fibers release what at synapses
Cholinergic fibers
These release ACh and their effects are short lived and local. ex) sweat glands
Adrenergic fibers
These produce NE and their effects are longer lasting and more widespread. Most sympathetic postganglionic neurons are these.
Nicotinic and muscarinic receptors
ACh interacts with these two types of cholinergic receptors.
Nicotinic receptors
These receptors are on postganglionic neurons
Muscarinic receptors
These receptors are on certain visceral effectors.
Alpha and Beta Receptors
NE interacts with these two types of adrenergic receptors on visceral effectors.
Sympathetic response
Fight or flight
Parasympathetic response
Energy conservation and restoration such as salivation, lacrimation, urination, digestion and defecation.
Hypothalamus
This controls and integrates with the autonomic nervous system. It is connected to both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
Cerebral Cortex
This controls the autonomic nervous system primarily during emotional stress.
Biofeedback
This is a process in which people learn to monitor visceral functions and to control them consciously. It can be used to control heart rate, ease migraine headaches and make childbirth easier.
Yoga
This is a higher consciousness achieved through a fully rested and relaxed body and a fully awake and relaxed mind.
Transcendental Meditation
TM can effect certain physiological responses. What does TM stand for?